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Chapter 14

Chapter 14

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter 14: Projective Personality Tests Projective personality tests such as the Rorschach are perhaps the most controversial and most misunderstood psychological tests. The Rorschach has been vigorously attacked on a variety of scientific and statistical groups, yet surveys of psychological test usage in the United States consistently find the Rorschach continues to be one of the most widely used tests in clinical settings It was found that five projective techniques (two of which were Rorschach and the TAT) were among the 10 testing instruments most frequently used in clinical settings The Rorschach is used extensively by psychologists and widely taught in doctoral training programs for clinical psychologists THE PROJECTIVE HYPOTHESIS Projective hypothesis proposes that when people attempt to understand an ambiguous or vague stimulus, their interpretation of that stimulus reflects their needs, feelings, experiences, prior conditioning, thought processes, and so forth Although what the subject finally sees in a stimulus is assumed to be a reflection of personal qualities or characteristics, some responses may be more revealing than others Examiners can never draw absolute, definite conclusions from any single response to an ambiguous stimulus. They can only hypothesize what a test response means. Even the same response to the same stimulus may have several possible meanings, depending on the characteristics of the people who make the response A problem with all projective tests is that many factors can influence ones response to them. It may reflect something one has witnessed or something one imagines rather than something one has actually experience directly. It may reflect day-to-day problems The interpretation of projective tests requires highly trained experienced practitioners THE RORSCHACH INKBLOT TEST Historical Antecedents J. Kerner noted that individuals frequently reported idiosyncratic or unique personal meanings when viewing inkblot stimuli. The wide variety of possible responses to inkblots does provide a rationale for using them to study individuals Binet proposed the idea of using inkblots to assess personality functioning when Rorschach was only 10 years old Rorschachs investigation of inkblots began in 1911 and culminated in 1921 with the publication of his famous book Psychodiagnostik David Levy first brought Rorschachs test to the United States from Europe, he found a cold, unenthusiastic response. U.S. psychologists judged the test to be scientifically unsound, and psychiatrists found little use for it. The use of the test gradually increased, and eventually it became quite popular Five individuals have played dominant roles in the use and investigation of Rorschach. One of these, Samuel J. Beck, was a student of Levys. Beck was especially interested in studying certain patterns or, as he called them, configurational tendencies in Rorschach responses. Like Beck, Marguerite Hertz stimulated considerable research on the Rorschach during the years when the test first established its foothold in the United States. Bruno Klopfer, published several key Rorschach books and articles and played an important role in the early development of the test Zygmunt Piotrowski and David Rapaport came somewhat later than Beck, Hertz, and Klopfer, but like them continues to exert an influence on clinical practitioners who use the Rorschach Each expert developed a unique system of administration, scoring, and interpretation; they all found disciples who were willing to accept their biases and use their systems www.notesolution.com
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