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Chapter 10

PSYC37: Chapter 10

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Chapter 10 Applications in Clinical and Counseling SettingsCalifornia Psychological Inventory CPI widely used tool in career assessmentPeople have developed tests to help solve problems that face modern societyPersonality relatively stable distinctive patterns of behavior that characterize individual and their reaction to environmentStructured personality tests evaluate personality traits personality types and personality statesPersonality traits relatively enduring dispositions tendencies to think act or feel in certain manner in any given circumstance that distinguish one person from anotherPersonality types general descriptions of peoplePersonality states emotional reactions that vary from one situation to anotherSelf concept persons self definition or according to Rogers organized relatively consistent set of assumptions a person has about themselvesPsychologists needed a measure of emotional functioning so they could evaluate large number of people and screen out those who were unfit for military serviceUsed self report questionnaires list of statements and required subjects to respondTFStructured or objective method of personality assessmentrespond in written format lack of ambiguity clear definite stimulus is provided and requires of subject are evident and specific Compared to projective method stimulus ambiguous subject few guidelines about type of response requiredBroadest level strategies are deductive and empirical Deductive strategies comprise logicalcontent and theoretical approachEmpirical strategies criteriongroup and factor analysis method Some methods combine twoDeductive strategies Use reason and deductive logic to determine meaning of rest response 1Logical content strategyUses reason and deductive logic in development of personality measuresLogically deduce type of content that should measure characteristic to be assessedAssumes test item describes subjects personality and behavior Select items on basis of simple face validity 1Theoretical strategyBegins with theory about nature of particular characteristic to be measuredItems must be consistent with theoryCreate items that tap each of 6 areasDemand that every item in scale be related to characteristic being measuredAttempts to create homogeneous scale and may use statistical procedures such as item analysis Test construction guided by particular psychological theoryEmpirical strategiesData collection and statistical analysis to determine meaning of test response or nature of personality and psychopathologyRetain self report features of deductive strategies in that subjects respond to items that describe own views opinions and feelingsUse experimental research to determine empirically meaning of test response 1Criterion group strategyBegins with criterion group or collection of individuals who share characteristicTest constructors select and administer group of items to all people in this criterion group as well as to control group that represents general populationAttempt to locate items that distinguish criterion and control groups or how two groups contrastNew subjects endorse large proportion of items on aggression scale hypothesize that they are aggressive because endorsed same itemsContent of items of little consequence What matters is that aggressive individuals marked Truediscriminating the aggressive individuals from control groupNo logical or rational reason for this responseActual content or face validity of item in criterion group strategy of little importanceApproach attempts to determine which items discriminate criterion and control groupsNext step cross validatechecking how well it distinguishes independent criterion sampleindividuals known to possess characteristics to be measuredfrom control groupData from normal controls obtain standard scoreDetermine how far above or below mean of normal group each new subject scores Subject scores converted into percentilesThird step conduct additional research to ascertain empirically what it means when subjects endorse x number of items on particular scale1Factor analytic strategyUses factor analysis to derive empirically basic dimensions of personalityReduces data to small number of descriptive units or dimensionsBegin with empirical database consisting of intercorrelation of large number of items or testsThen factor analyze these intercorelationsfind minimum number of factors that account for as much of variability in data as possible Attempt to label these factors by ascertaining what items related to particular factor have in common All available structured personality tests can be classified into one or some combination of four strategies mentioned Logical Content StrategyWoodworth Personal Data Sheet first personality inventory ever developed during WWI purpose to identify military recruits likely to break down in combatItems selected from list of known symptoms of emotional disordersYielded single score providing global measure of functioning
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