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Chapter 17

PSYC37: Chapter 17

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Chapter 17 Testing in Health Psychology and Health Care Clinical neuropsychology scientific disciple focuses on psychological impairments on central nervous system and remediation studies relationship btw behavior and brain functioning in realms of cognitive motor sensory and emotional functioningIdentification description multivariate quantification and treatment of diseases of brain and spinal cordNeuropsychology and neurology both focus on sensations and perceptions and on motor movementsNeuropsychology and psychiatry both study mood and adaptations to psychosocial situationsNeuropsychology and psychometrics both use psychological testsBut neuropsychology finely specialized focusing on attention memory learning language and communication spatial integration cognitive flexibilityAttempts to relate brain dysfunction and damage to observable and measurable brain functioningFew short years ago only way to learn problems was to study brains of people who had already diedRemarkable variability from person to person in how brains structured and organizedPerformance on neuropsychological tests give clues which parts of brain to examineValuable in characterizing effects of serious medical conditions like HIV that might influence brain and behavior Neuropsychology detect problems often missed by latest neuroimagining devicesAlzheimers diseasePrimary method to diagnose effects of minor traumatic injuryBroca and Wernicke found recognition of speech localized in left hemisphere of brainBroadman first functional map of cerebral cortex70s and 80s neuropsychology explodedDeveloped many procedures for identifying relationship btw brain problems and behavioral problemsNueropsychologists quite specialized focus on brain dysfunction in children adults those with brain injuries cognitive processes in mental illness AIDS elderlyEvaluate specific problems in memory make distinctions among memory systems such as short and long term memoryMeasure memory dysfunctionWeschsler Memory Scale Revised WMSR Memory Assessment Scales MAS RANDT Memory Test RMT and Luria Nebraska batteryShort term memory best assessed using verbal tests include immediate recall span digit span and several words testLinking performance on neuropsychological tests to specific clinical problemsEx Alcoholic dementia caused by long term chronic alcoholism characterized by dysfunction in visuospatial skillsPatients with Huntingtons disease perform better in recognition may have retrograde amnesia than Alzheimers disease severe difficulties with recall for recent events but less for long term memoriesRecently detoxified alcoholics scored lower on measures of immediate recall 20minute delayed recall and recognition than did comparable subjects who had been off alcohol for 18 monthsEvidence that there is some recovery of learning and memory when alcoholics are abstinent for 18 months or more however chronic alcohol use may be permanent Functional problems related to specific locations in brain
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