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PSYC37H3 (159)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8(A).docx

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Anthony Ruocco

Psychological Assessment Chapter 8 A Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Defense mechanisms come in many varieties but they all share three characteristics in common First their exclusive purpose is to help the ego reduce anxiety created by the conflicting demands of id superego and external reality Defense mechanisms and anxiety are therefore complementary concepts in psychoanalytic theory one existing as a counterforce to the other the second common feature of defense mechanisms is that they operate unconsciouslythe third common feature is that they distort inner or outer reality Defense mechanisms can be grouped into four different categories Listed in order of increasing healthiness the types are psychotic immature neurotic and mature A psychotic mechanism is a gross denial of reality to an extreme degree An immature mechanism is the projection of unacknowledged feeling to others An neurotic defense mechanism is the alteration of inner feelings so that they are less threateningA mature mechanism would be the use of humorType Theories of Personality the earliest personality theories attempted to sort individuals into discrete categories or types Type A coronaryprone behaviour pattern is any person who is involved in a chronic struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time whereas the Type B behaviour pattern is an easygoing noncompetitive relaxed lifestyleType A behaviour results in a higher risk of heart disease Phenomenological Theories of Personality Phenomenological theories of personality emphasize the importance of immediate personal subjective experience as a determinant of behaviourThe more influential phenomenological theorist was Carl Rogers his theory was known as the selftheoryQtechnique is a procedure for studying changes in the selfconcept a key element in Rogers self theoryThe Qsort consists of a large number of cards each containing a printed statement such as I am likeable The instruction specify that the examinee put the cards most descriptive of him or her at one end those least descriptive at the opposite end Another way to use the Qsort is to compare an examinees selfsort with his or her ideal sort Rogers used the discrepancy between these two sorting as an index of adjustment
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