Textbook Notes (367,893)
Canada (161,477)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC37H3 (159)
Chapter 1

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Anthony Ruocco

Chapter 1- Applications and Consequences of Psychological Testing  Measures of personality and intelligence are still the essential mainstays of psychological testing  However, modern test developers have produced many other kinds of tests for diverse and imaginative purposes that even the early pioneers of testing could not have anticipated THE CONSEQUENCES OF TESTING  The baby’s first test conducted immediately after birth is the Apgar test (0-10 scale), a quick, multivariate assessment of heart rate, respiration, muscle tons, reflex irritability, and colour  Tests are used in almost every nation on earth for counselling, selection, and placement  Psychological test results alter individual destiny in profound ways  A psychometrician is a specialist in psychology or education who develops and evaluates psychological tests DEFINITION OF A TEST  A test is a standardized procedure for sampling behaviour and describing it with categories or scores  In sum, tests are enormously varied in their formats and applications. Nonetheless, most tests possesss these defining features:  Standardized procedure  Behaviour sample  Scores or categories  Norms or standards  Prediction of nontest behaviour  Standardized procedure is an essential feature of any psychological test  A test is considered to be standardized if the procedures for administering it are uniform from one examiner and setting to another  Standardization rests largely on the directions for administration found in the instructional manual that typically accompanies a test  The essential characteristics of a good test is that it permits the examiner to predict other behaviours- not that it mirrors the to-be-predicted behaviours.  If answering ‘true’ to the question ‘ I drink a lot of water’ happens to help predict depression, then this seemingly unrelated question is a useful index of depression  Every test score will always reflect some degree of measurement error  Tests must rely on an external sample of behaviour to estimate an unobservable and therefore inferred characteristics. Psychometricians often express this fundamental point with an equation: X= T + e where X is the observed score, T is the true score, and e is a positive or negative error component.  The best a test developer can do is make e very small. It can never be completely eliminated, nor can its exact impact be known in the individual case  The second caution is that test consumers must be wary of reifying that characeritiscs being measured. Test results do not represent a thing with physical reality  A psychological test must almost possesss norms or standards.  Test developers provide
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