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PSYC37H3 (159)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8a.docx

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Anthony Ruocco

Chapter 8aTheories of Personality and Projective Techniques Ability Tests vs Personality Testso Ability tests include a plethora of instruments for measuring intelligence achievement and aptitudeo Personality tests seek to measure one or more of the following personality traits dynamic motivation symptoms of distress personal strengths and attitudinal characteristicsPersonality an Overview The two fundamental features of personality o Each person is consistent to some extent we have coherent traits and action patterns that arise repeatedlyo Each person is distinctive to some extent behavioural differences exist between individualsPersonality to make sense out of the behaviour and expressed feelings of otherso To understand behavioural differences between people ex 3 students get same mark for midterm but 3 of them act differently such as disappointed happy and sad Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality Psychoanalysis was the original creation of Sigmund FreudOrigins of Psychoanalytic Theory Freud began his profession career as a neurologist but was soon specializing in the treatment of hysteria an emotional disorder characterized by histrionic behaviour and physical symptoms of psychic origins such as paralysis blindness and loss of sensationo He discovered with his colleague Joseph Breuer that the root cause of hysteria was buried memories of traumatic experiences such as childhood sexual molestationFreud developed a general theory of psychological functioning with the concept of the unconscious as its foundation Believed that unconscious was the reservoir of instinctual drivers and a storehouse of thoughts and wish that would be unacceptable to our conscious self Dreams itself portray our unconscious motives in a disguised form Rorschach likened his inkblot test to an X ray of the unconscious mindThe Structure of the Mind Freud divided the mind into three structures id ego and superegoo The id is the obscure and inaccessible part of our personality that Freud likened to a chaos a cauldron of seething excitementthe id is entirely unconscious Freud concluded that that the id is the seat of all institutional needs such as for food water sexual gratification and avoidance of painThe id has only one purpose and that is to obtain immediate satisfaction for these needs in accordance with the pleasure principle The pleasure principle is the impulsion towards immediate satisfaction without regard for values good or evil or mortality The id is also incapable of logic and processes no concept of time The chaotic performance of id are therefore unaltered by the passage of time and impressions that been pushed down into the id are virtually immortal and are preserved for whole decades as though they had recently occurredo Ego or the conscious selfthe purpose of the ego is to mediate between the id and the reality Ego is largely conscious and obeys the reality principlewhere it seeks realistic and safe ways of discharging and instinctual tensions that are constantly pushing forth from the idThe ego must also contend with the superego the ethical component of personality that starts to emerge in the first five yeas of lifeo Superegowhich is synonymous with conscience and comprises the societal standards of right and wrong that are conveyed to us by our parents Superego is partly conscious but a large part of its unconscious which means that we are not always aware of its existence or operation Function of the superego is to restrict the attempts of the id and ego and to obey gratification Its main weapon isguilt to punish its wrong doings of the ego and id Another part of the superego is the ego ideal and strives to fulfill its demand for perfection If the ego falls too far short of meeting the standards of the ego ideal a feeling of guilt may resultA Role of Defence Mechanism The ego hasa set of tools at its disposal to help carry out its work namely mental strategies collectively labelled defence mechanisms Defence mechanisms come in many varieties but they all share three characteristics in commono Their elusive purpose is to help the ego reduce anxiety created by the conflicting demands of id superego and external reality Freud felt that anxiety was a signal telling the ego to invoke one or more defence mechanisms in its own behalf Defence mechanisms and anxiety are therefore complementaryto the psychoanalytic theory one existing as the counteract to another
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