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Chapter 10

Chapter 10b.docx

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Anthony Ruocco

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Chapter 10b Neuropsychological Tests Batteries and Screening Tools An essential component of any assessment is an evaluation of a clients mental statusA conceptual model of brainbehaviour relationships Benett has proposed a simplified model of brainbehaviour relationships that is helpful in organizing the seemingly chaotic profusion of neuropsychological testso The conceptualization is a slight expression of the model presented by Reitan and Wolfson Each neurological procedure evaluates one or more of the following categoriesSensory input Attention and concentration Learning and memory Language Spatial and manipulatory ability Executive functions o Logical analysiso Concept formationo Reasoningo Planningo Flexibility of thinking Motor outputo Look at FIGURE 106 Tests and procedures of the HalsteadReitan Test Batteryo Category testmeasures abstract reasoning and concept formation requires examinee to find the rule forcategorizing pictures of geometric shapeso Tactual Performance TestMeasures kinaesthetic and sensorimotor ability requires blindfolded examinee to place books in appropriate cutout on an upright board with dominant hand then nondominant hand then both hands also tests for incidental memory of blockso Speech Sounds Perception Testmeasures attention and auditory visual synthesis requires examinee to pick from four choices the written version of taped nonsense wordso Seashore Rhythm TestMeasures attention and auditory perception requires examinee to indicate whether paired musical rhythms are same or differento Finger Tapping Testmeasures motor speed requires examinee to tap a telegraph keylike lever as quickly as possible for 10 secondso Grip strengthmeasures grip strength with dynamometer requires examinee to squeeze as hard as possible separate trials with each hando Trail Making Parts A BMeasures scanning ability mental flexibility and speed requires examinee to connect numbers Part A or numbers and letters in alternating order part B with a pencil line under a pressure of timeo Tactile Form RecognitionMeasures sensory perceptual ability requires examinee to recognize simple shapes ex triangle placed in the palm of the hando Sensory Perceptual FormMeasures sensoryperceptual ability requires examinee to recognize simple bilateral sensory tasks ex detecting which finger has been touched which ear has received a brief sound assess the visual fieldo Aphasia Screening TestMeasures expressive and receptive language abilities tasks include naming a pictured item ex fork repeating wrong phases copying tasks not a measure of aphasia included here for historical reasonso SupplementaryWAIS III WRAT 3 MMPI2 memory tests such as Wechsler Memory Scale III or Rey Auditory Verbal Learning TestAssessment of Sensory Input An individual who does not see stimuli correctly hear sounds accurately or process touch reliably may encounter additional handicaps at higher levels of perception and cognitionSensory Perceptual Exam Reitan and Klove developed procedures for sensoryperceptual procedureso Consists of several methods for delivering unilateral and bilateral stimulation in the modalities of touch hearing and vision For example the examinee is asked to say which hand has been touched with eyes closed or to report which ear has received a barely audible finger snap or to identify which number has been traced on the fingertip Especially diagnostic if the examinee consistently makes more errors on one side of the body than the other Certain areas of the cerebral cortex are devoted to primary processing of touch hearing and vision An examinee who finds it difficult to process touch in the right hand may have a lesion in the postcentral gyrus of the left parietal lobe Difficultly processing sound in the right ear may indicate a lesion in the superior portion of the left temporal love Right sided visual defects may indicate brain impairment in the left occipital lobe Finger Localization Test Is a venerable procedure developed by neurologists to evaluate possible sensory looses caused by impairment of brain functions
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