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PSYC37H3 (159)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8b.docx

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Anthony Ruocco

Chapter 8b Self Report and Behaviour Assessment of PsychopathologyTwo approaches have dominated the fieldo UnstructuredRorschach TAT and sentence completion blanks permit broad latitude in the responses of the examinee o Structuredsuch as self report inventories and behaviour rating scales gained prominence in the midtwentieth century and have continued to expand in popularity to the present time Only a handful of unstructured techniques has ever reached its distinction the number of structured instruments for assessment has grown almost exponentiallyProjective techniques largely lack the approval of psychometrically oriented clinicians Contemporary psychometricians have relied mainly upon three tactics for personality test development o Theory bounded approacheso Factor analytic approacheso Criterion key methodsTheory Guided Inventories Theory guided inventories stand in contrast to factor analytic approaches which often produce a retrospective theory based upon initial test findings Theory guided inventories also differ from the stark a theoretical empiricism found in criterion key instruments such as MMPI and MMPI2o Ex theory guided inventory is the Personality Research Form PRF based on Murrays need press theory of personalityo The Jenkins Activity Survey designed to assess the Type A coronary prone behaviour pattern also epitomizes a theory guided instrumento State Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI attempt to measure very specific components of personalityPersonality Research Form PRF is a true false inventory based loosely on Murrays theory of manifest needs The forms differ in the number of scales and number of items per scaleo In addition to parallel short tests forms A and B the Personality Research Form PRF also exists as parallel long forms form AA and BBo These forms used primarily with college students consist of 440 true false items The most popular version of the PRF is form E which consists of all 22 scales in a modified 352 item test PRF have no item overlap Scales are unusually independent with most interrelation coefficient in the vicinity 030 Test retest reliabilities are exceptionally strong ranging from 080 and 096 for a two week interval with a median of 091 A desirable feature of the PRK is its readability the test requires only a fifth or sixth grade reading level The construct validity of the PRK rests especially upon confirmatory factor analyses corroborating the grouping of the items into 20 scales Edwards and Abbott found exceptionally strong and confirmatory correlations between similar scales on the PRK and the Edwards Personality Inventory EPI EPI is a respected but little used test consisting of 1200true false questionsMeasures of Type A behaviour Type A behaviour refers to a hard driving aggressive behaviour pattern that might be called hurry sickness Time Urgency and Perpetual Activation TUPA is respected by researchers in behavioural medicine because of its psychometric excellenceScores on the TUPA mildly predict a number of physical health problems in college students including respiratory illness pain and sensory disturbances Jenkins Activity Survey JAS is a 52 item multiple choice self report questionnaire designed to identify the Type A coronary prone behaviour patterno Ex Definitely competitive and ambitious Possibly competitive and ambitious Type A behaviour score the JAS yields three factor analytically derived subscaleso Speed and impatienceo Job involvemento Hard driving or competitivenessThe instrument was standardized to have a mean of 00 and standard deviation of 100 with positive scores indicating Type A tendencies and negative scores indicating the opposite Type B tendencies The Type A behaviour pattern also consists of insecurity of status hyperaggressiveness freefloating hostility and a sense of time urgency o This behaviour pattern are at increased risk of coronary heart disease CHDThe JAS was developed in an attempt to duplicate the structured interview thereby providing a quick and economical method of screening for Type A behaviour JAS has not fulfilled its ambitious aspirations Another problem with the JAS is that patients with CHD do not differ from general medical patients on its subscales Wright found that the Speed and Impatience scale produced a significant difference in the wrong directionthe CHS patients scored lower than the non CHD medical patientsFactor Analytical Derived Inventories
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