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Psychology (9,573)
PSYC37H3 (159)
Chapter 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anthony Ruocco

Chapter 2Rudimentary Forms of Testing in China in 2200 BCTesting can be dated back to 22200 BC when the emperor made his officials take a test every 3 yearsExamination system was abolished by royal decree in 1906 Physiognomy Phrenology and the Psychograph Physiognomy is the notion that we can judge the inner character of people from their outward appearance especially the face th This notion can be traced back to the 4 century when Aristotle said that changes in a persons soul could change the appearance of the body and vice versaJohann Lavater made physiognomy flourish with his essaysThis laid the foundation for Franz Joseph Gall 17581829 who came up with phrenology Johann Spurzheim 17761832 popularized phrenologyIn 1931 Henry C Lavery made a machine called the psychograph which measured bumps on the head The Brass Instruments Era of TestingExperimental psychology flourished in the late 1800s in continental Europe and Great BritainHuman abilities tested in labs and they used procedures capable of replicationEarly experimental psychologists mistook simple sensory processes for intelligence Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 founded first psychological lab in 1879 in Leipzig GermanyBelieved speed of thought differed from one person to another Galton and the First Battery of Mental Test th Sir Francis Galton 18221911 pioneered the new experimental psychology in 19 century Great BritainAlso performed testing but collected from thousands of peopleBecause of his efforts in devising practicable measures of individual difference he is regarded as the father of mental testing
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