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Chapter 5

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Anthony Ruocco

PSYC37 Chapter 5 Intelligence highly researched topic in psychology o Definition to this is very elusive filled with controversy and mysteryPsychometrians better at measuring intelligence than conceptualizing itMost tests we use is based on a specific theory of intelligence and its meaning to what intelligence isDefinitions of intelligenceBefore giving a definition one must know what a definition is o SternbergOperational definitiondefines concept based on how its measuredIn 1923 boring defined intelligence as what the test tests2 short coming to this definitionCircular tests were made to measure intelligence not define itBlocks further understanding foreclose discussions on adequacy of theories of intelligenceAnother problem is that is everything is based on operational definitions then only the old tests that helped prove it are valid Anything new would be put in reference with the old testsThis puts innovation and new possible ideas for definitions on holdReal definition seeks to tell us the true nature of the thing being definedExpert definitions of intelligenceSternbergDetterman 1986 gathered and edited the definitions of intelligence from others o Spearman19041923 general ability that involves mainly the education of relations and correlates o Binnet and Simon 1905Ability to judge well to understand well to reason well o Terman1916 Capacity to form concepts and grasp their significance o Pinter1921 Ability of the individual to adapt adequately to relatively new situations in life o Thorndike1921 Power of good responses from the point of view of truth or fact o Wechsler1939 Aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment o Piaget1972 Generic term to indicate the superior forms of organization or equilibrium of cognitive structuring used for adaptation to the physical and social environment o Sternberg1985a1986 mental capacity to automatize info processing and to emit contextually appropriate behaviour in response to novelty Includes Metacomponentperformance componentknowledgeacquisition component o Eysenck1986 Errorfree transmission of info through cortex o Gardner1986 Ability or skill to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued within one or more cultural settings PAGE 153Problem with the above is that cultural factors were not given consideration because this is all based on western perspectiveEven in other definitions there are two themes that occur consistently o Capacity to learn from experience o Capacity to adapt to ones environmentLayperson and Expert Conceptions of IntelligenceIn a study done by Sternberg and colleagues it was found that the conception of intelligence by experts and laypersons were very similar Both held the same importance in terms of the kinds of intelligence that are crucial o Lay personsPractical ProblemSolving AbilityVerbal AbilitySocial Competence o ExpertsVerbal IntelligenceProblemSolving AbilityPractical Intelligence Intelligence test dont measure practical intelligence is because of inertia o Blinded accepted historical incomplete conceptions of intelligence o Everything has been more conservative
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