Textbook Notes (362,879)
Canada (158,081)
Psychology (9,549)
PSYC37H3 (159)
Bouffard (28)
Chapter 9

Psych Assess Textbook Notes (Ch.9,10,13-17).docx

31 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter 9: Theories of Intelligence and the Binet Scales The Problem of Defining Intelligence - Alfred Binet, one of the original authors of the test that bears his name, defined intelligence as the tendency to take and maintain a definite direction; the capacity to make adaptations for the purpose of attaining a desired end, and the power of autocriticism - Spearman, defined intelligence as the ability to educe either relations or correlates - T.R. Taylor identified three independent research traditions that have been employed to study the nature of human intelligence: the psychometric, the information-processing, and the cognitive approaches - The psychometric approach examines the elemental structure of a test. Following the psychometric approach, we examine the properties of a test through and evaluation of its correlates and underlying dimensions - In the information-processing approach, we examine the processes that underlie how we learn and solve problems - The cognitive tradition focuses on how humans adapt to real-world demands - There is a correlation between socioeconomic background and scores on all standardized intelligence test, including Stanford-Binet. Thus, many people have charged that intelligence tests are biased, especially against ethnic minorities and the poor - Intelligence tests were initially developed to eliminate subjectivity in the evaluation of childrens ability and it should be noted that among standardized tests, the Stanford-Binet fifth edition is among the best in providing appropriate cautions for test users - In 1904, the French minister officially appointed a commission, to which he gave a definite assignment: to recommend a procedure for identifying so called subnormal (intellectually limited) children Binets Principles of Test Construction - Binet defined intelligence as the capacity (1) to find and maintain a definite direction or purpose, (2) to make necessary adaptations that is, strategy adjustments to achieve that purpose, and (3) to engage in self-criticism so that necessary adjustments in strategy can be made - Binet believed that intelligence expressed itself through the judgmental, attentional, and reasoning facilities of the individual, he decided to concentrate on finding tasks related to these three facilities - In developing tasks to measure judgment, attention, and reasoning, Binet used trial and error as well as experimentation and hypothesis-testing procedures - He was guided by two major concepts that to this day underlie not only the Binet scale but also major modern theories of intelligence: age differentiation and general mental ability - These principles provided the foundation for subsequent generations of human ability tests Principle 1: Age Differentiation - Age differentiation refers to the simple fact that one can differentiate older children from younger children by the formers greater capabilities - Binet eventually assembled a set of tasks that an increasing proportion of children could complete as a function of increases in age - Using these tasks, he could estimate the mental ability of a child in terms of his/her completion of the tasks designed for the average child of a particular age, regardless of the childs actual or chronological age - A particular 5-year0old child might be able to complete tasks that the average 8-year-old could complete - With the principle of age differentiation, one could determine the equivalent age capabilities of a child independent of his/her chronological age - This equivalent age capability was eventually called mental age - If a 6-year-old completed tasks that were appropriate for the average 9-year-old, then the 6-year-old had demonstrated that he/she had capabilities equivalent to those of the average 9-year-old, or a mental age of 9 Principle 2: General Mental Ability - Binet was guided in his selection of tasks by his decision to measure only the total product of the various separate and distinct elements of intelligence, that is general mental ability - With this concept, Binet freed himself from the burden of identifying each element or independent aspect of intelligence - He also was freed from finding the relation of each element to the whole - Binets decision to measure general mental ability was based on practical considerations - He could restrict the search for tasks to anything related to the total or the final product of intelligence. He could judge the value of any particular task in terms of its correlation with the combined result (total score) of all other tasks - Tasks with low correlations could be eliminated, and tasks with high correlations retained Spearmans Model of General Mental Ability - According to Spearmans theory, intelligence consists of one general factor (g) plus a large number of specific factors - Spearmans notion of general mental ability, which he referred to as psychometric g, was based on the well-documented phenomenon that when a set of diverse ability tests are administered to large unbiased samples of the population, almost all of the correlations are positive - This phenomenon is called positive manifold, which according to Spearman resulted from the fact that all tests, no matter how diverse, are influenced by g - For Spearman, g could be best be conceptualized in terms of mental energy - To support the notion of g, Spearman developed a statistical technique called factor analysis. Factor analysis is a method for reducing a set of variables or scores to a smaller number of hypothetical variables called factors - Through factor analysis, one can determine how much variance a set of tests or scores has in common - This common variance represents the g factor. The g in a factor analysis of any set of mental ability tasks can be represented in the first unrotated factor in a principal components analysis - Spearman found that , as a general rule, approximately half of the variance in a set of diverse mental-ability tests is represented in the g factor Implications of General Mental Intelligence (g) - The concept of general intelligence implies that a persons intelligence can best be represented by a single score, g, that presumably reflects the shared variance underlying performance on a diverse set of tests - Performance on any given individual task can be attributed to g as well as to some specific or unique variance. However, if the set of tasks is large and broad enough, the role of any given tasks can be reduced to a minimum - Differences in unique ability stemming from the specific task tend to cancel each other, and overall performance comes to depend most heavily on the general factor The gf-gc Theory of Intelligence - Recent theories of intelligence have suggested that human intelligence can be best be conceptualized in terms of multiple intelligences rather than a single score. One such theory is called the gf-gc theory - According to gf-gc theory, there are two basic types of intelligence: fluid (f) and crystallized (c) - Fluid intelligence can best be thought of as those abilities that allow us to reason, think, and acquire new knowledge - Crystallized intelligence, by contrast, represents the knowledge and understanding that we have acquired The Early Binet Scales The 1905 Binet - Simon Scale - The 1905 Binet-Simon scale was an individual intelligence test consisting of 30 items presented in an increasing order of difficulty - In Binet time, three levels of intellectual deficiency were designated by terms no longer in use today because of the derogatory connotations they have acquired - Idiot described the most severe form of intellectual impairment, imbecile moderate levels of impairment, and moron the mildest level of impairment - Binet believed that the ability to follow simple directions and imitate simple gestures was the upper limit of adult idiots. - The ability to identify parts of the body or simple objects would rule out the most severe intellectual impairment in an adult - The upper limit for adult imbeciles required the subject to state the differences between two common objects such as wood and glass - The collection of 30 tasks of increasing difficulty in the Binet-Simon scale provided the first major measure of human intelligence - Binet had solved two major problems of test construction: he determined exactly what he wanted to measure, and he developed items for this purpose - 1905 Binet-Simon scale lacked an adequate measuring unit to express results; it also lacked adequate normative data and evidence to support its validity - The classifications Binet used (idiot, imbecile, and moron) can hardly be considered sufficient for expressing results and
More Less

Related notes for PSYC37H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.