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Female offenders Notes.doc

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David Nussbaum

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History of studying Female offenders Factors that place a male or female on criminal trajectory 1) individual personality factors: impulsivity 2) interpersonal factors: poor relationship choices, family factors 3) community factors- living in high crime neighbourhood 4) structural factors- poverty racism Lombroso: first studied female offenders - female criminal conduct was unequivocally sexist and overly focused on biology and sexuality, relative to male criminal conduct 1970’s After Lombroso: didn’t pay attention to female offenders Or assumed any reasoning behind male crime applied to female crime Rita SIMON and Freda ALDER (female)— - understand female analysis through lens of feminism Prevalence and Nature of Female Perpetrated Crime  Universal fact: girls and women commit less crime and particular less VIOLENT crime compared to men and boys  Violent offending: women only account for 16 percent  High proportion of property charges  Women in 2005 stats, accused of LESS homicide and sexual assault  Males outnumber women in all crimes EXCEPT PROSTITUTION Studies done on Female Offending Internationally New Zealand Study, Tweeiw Moddirr et al: - Male to female ratio of individuals classified as “adolescent limited ( criminal conduct begins during adolescence, and is relatively minor and short lived) is 1.5: 1 - Male to female ration of individuals labeled as “life-course persistent was 10:1 - True across nations that males perform more crimes than females (that’s right, dudes be trippn’) specifically more in violent crimes Females are still capable of comiting violent crimes they are just rare. Offence gestalt- motivation, circumstances and context of crimes differ markedly from male counterparts Greenfeld and Snell. 1) Females are MORE likely to have murdered an intimate partner or family member relative to MALE - when females murder intimate partner its out of domestic violence, where for MALES its out of jealousy, infidelity, desertion and control 2) Females LESS likely to murder a stranger than MALES - BUT when they do commit non familial homicides their motives are the same as men- which is vindication and/or an attempt to restore personal integrity Sample crimes committed by Females 1) Shoplifting 2) Fraud 3) Drug trafficking 4) Familial assault 5) Domestic homicide 6) Infanticide Researching Female Offenders Study female offenders by 1) Qualitative-: Feminist Pathways: - interview with incarcerated girls/women or self identified prostitutes to help them understand female criminality - allow girls and women to tell their stories in their own voices 2) Quantitative - used by applied correctional feminist - meta analyses and recividism studies conclusion: integrate both approaches Why girls and women commit crime? Female Centred Theories - gender if afforeed preeminent status - onset, maintenance, eventual desistence of female criminal conduct are different from males Feminist Pathway Research - use one time qualitative interview with incarcerated girls/women or self identified prostitutes to ascertain pathways to delinquency - AVERSIVE family environments propel girls from their homes to streets o Leads to prostitution and poor coping strategies  ( drug use and criminalized survival strategies  robbery, fraug and drug trafficking - Other reasons highlighted: poor parental supervision, parental psychopathology and economic marginalization - Major limitation of research is its UNIDIMENSIONAL approach Personal, Interpersonal and Community Reinforcement (PIC-R) Theory - Andrew and Bonta, o Multidiclpiary perspective that integrates biological, sociological cultural, familial, interpersonal and situation variables o Commit crimes when rewards for doing so exceed the cost o FOUR dimensions influence the cost/reward of crime  1) Situationalopportunities/temptations, stressors, facilitators, disinhibitors  2) personal- antisocial cognitions, history of antisocial behavior, antisocial personality, biological factors  3) Interpersonalantisocial associates and family, They further identified three accuracy levels of risk factors 1) Antisocial cognition 2) Antisocial Associates 3) Antisocial personality Middle range risk factors 1) substance abuse 2) marital/family facors 3) poor school/employment achievement 4) inadequate leisure and recreation Low range risk factors 1) lower-class origins 2) low verbal intelligence 3) personal
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