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Chapter 5&7-11

PSYC39 CHAPS 5 & 7-11

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

CHAPTER 5: JUVENILE CRIME OFFENDING INTRODUCTION - Not everyone who commits at act is charged/prosecuted - Children under 12 are not charged, even when they commit a murder - Prior to age 12, children’s behaviour is governed by the Child and Family Services Act - Canada outlines provisions for younger aged “offenders” in Youth Criminal Justice Act Box 5.1 When Siblings Fight - 5 year old boy in Edmonton stabbed his 7 year old brother to death - Were fighting over a toy during the holidays - Police declared the stabbing a “non-culpable homicide” w/the child deemed too young to be responsible for his actions - Instead, the Victims’ Services Unit and Child and Family Services worked w/the family to provide counselling THE HISTORY OF JUVENILE JUSTICE IN CANADA - Prior to 19 century, children and youth who committed criminal acts were treated like adult offenders – including death penalty - 1908, Canada enacted Juvenile Delinquent’s Act o Applied to individuals between 7-16 and were labelled as delinquents, not offenders o Criticisms include the informality of youth courts denying youth their rights (e.g., a lawyer, or appeal) o Judge could impose open-ended sentences o Broad definition of delinquency that included acts that were not illegal for adults - 1984, Youth Offenders Act replaced JDA o Juvenile offenders recognized as cognitively different o Right to protect community from young offenders while granting juveniles their rights as stated in Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - YOA increased minimum age at which an individual could be charged w/a criminal offend to 12-18 from 7-16 - In order to be transferred to adult court, youth had to be at least 14 - YOA allowed youth cases to be diverted - Diversion is a decision not to prosecute a young offender but rather have them undergo an educational or community service program o Young offender as to plead guilty for diversion to be possible - Other dispositions are absolute discharge, fine, compensation, restitution, custody, etc. - Bill C-106 section 16 introduced to combat problem of youth pleading guilty to avoid transfer to adult court o Youth court required to consider whether Crown or defense would like to make an application to transfer - Bill C-37 section 106 made 16 and 17 year olds automatically be tried in adult court if they crime was murder, manslaughter, or aggravated sexual assault o 1 degree murder: 10 year max, w/6 year max incarcerated o 2 degree murder: 7 year max, w/4 year max incarcerated - 2003, Youth Criminal Justice Act replace YOA o 3 objectives to YCKA: prevent youth crime, provide meaningful consequences and encourage responsibility of behaviour, improve rehabilitation and reintegration of youth into community - Police are to consider community services and less serious alternative before brining juveniles to youth court  these alternatives are called extrajudicial measures o Include warnings and making referrals without the juvenile’s consent Youth Crime Rates - 3% increase in overall crime rate for juveniles from ’05-‘06 - 2006-2007, youth courts processed 56,463 cases, 26% decrease from 2002-2003 - Legislation may not decrease the number of actual crimes committed but rather the reporting/recording of crimes - After YCKA introduced, there was a decrease in property crime but not violence crime Youth Sentences - Following YCJA, about 17% of guilty offenders went to jail in 2006-2007, compared to 27% in 2002-2003 - Most common sentence for juveniles was probation Box 5.2 Youth is No Excuse for Murder - 12 year old girl and 23 year old boyfriend Jeremy Allan Steinke found guilty of murdering girl’s parents and little brother - Courtroom testimony said her parents didn’t approve of relationship and girl testified she was angry and talked about killing them but never meant it - Defence argued Jeremy took matters into his own hanst - Jury sided with crown and found girl guilty of 1 degree murder; youngest person in Canada to be convicted of multiple homicide - During Steinke’s trial, Crown described him as unemployed high school dropout - Defence argue he was abused as a child and bullied by classmates; he was sentenced to life in prison Trajectories of Juvenile Offenders - 2 types of juvenile offenders: child-onset, life course persistent, and adolescent onset-adolescent limited - Those w/childhood onset may also have ADHD, leaning disabilities, academic difficulties o Childhood-onset trajectory less frequent, about 3-5% of general population - Adolescent-onset pattern occurs in 70% of population - Brame et al. followed boys w/high levels of aggression in Montreal from kindergarten thru to their teens o Found overall levels of aggression decreased as boys got older, regardless of how high it was when the boys were younger o Large proportion of boys had little to no aggression reported in their teens THEORIES TO EXPLAIN JUVENILA OFFENDING Biological Theories - Genetic and physiological difference between those who engage in antisocial behaviour and those who don’t - Fathers who engage in antisocial behaviour more likely to have kids who engage in it too - Twin and adoption studies further support the above conclusion - Wadsworthantisocial youth have slower heart rates than non-antisocial youth, suggesting higher-threshold for excitability - Moffit and henry  antisocial youth have less frontal lobe inhibition Cognitive Theories - Kenneth Dodge et al.  model of conduct-disordered behaviour that focuses on thought processes that occur in social interactions o Conduct-disordered youth demonstrate cognitive deficits and distortions o Attend to fewer cues and misattribute hostile intent to ambiguous situations o Limited problem solving skills - Dodge et al.  distinguished 2 types of aggressive behaviour: o Reactive aggression: an emotionally aggressive response to a perceived threat/frustration o Proactive aggression: aggression directed at achieving a goal or receiving positive reinforcers Social Theories - Bandura’s social learning theory – children learn their behaviour from observing others - Children more likely to imitate positively reinforced behaviour than negatively reinforced behaviour or punishment - Children who are highly aggressive and engage in antisocial behaviour have often seen parents, siblings, grandparents engage in similar behaviour - Patterson’s coercive family process model – aggressive behaviour develops from imitation and reinforcement; inadequate parental supervision; inconsistent disciplining - Dr. Marlene Moretti – adolescents who witness interparental violence are at risk for aggression; females who witnessed their mothers’ aggressive behaviour toward partners were significantly more aggressive towards friends; both sexes more likely to be aggressive w/their romantic partners - TV, video games, movies where actors are rewarded for aggression RISK FACTORS FOR JUVENILE OFFENDING - Term risk factor refers to a variable that, if present, poses and increased likelihood of an undesirable outcome such as delinquency or antisocial behaviour - Rarely one risk factor will be sufficient to lead to offending, do does the presence of many risk factors guarantee a youth will become a juvenile offender - Multiple risk factors have an interactive, multiplicative influence, thereby compounding the likelihood of offending - Herrenkohl – 10 year old who is exposed to 6+ risk factors 10X more likely to commit violent act by age 18 than 10 year old boy exposed to only 1 risk factor Individual - Prenatal complications - Medncik & Kandel – offenders more likely to have ad delivery/birth complications compared to non-offenders - Farrington – children who are difficult to soothe can be at risk for later behavioural difficulties - Substance abuse at a young age - Low verbal intelligence and delayed language development - Aggressive behaviour before age 13  strongest predictor Familial - Poor parental supervision, low parental involvement, parental conflict, parental aggression - Child abuse, neglect, maltreatment - abuse factors pose greater risk for boys - Wisdom—abused/neglected children 38% more likely to be arrested tor violent offence than children who hadn’t been abused or neglected - Children who don’t attach securely to parents; parental loss; divorce - Low SES, large family size, parental mental health probs - Parents who are heavy drinkers  unable to provide adequate parenting and supervision School - Poor academic performance in elementary, low commitment to school, low aspiration - Farrington – high truancy rates between 12-14 related to juvenile offending extending into adulthood - Suspension and expulsion may not reduce delinquent behaviour Peer - Most important during adolescence - Consistent relationship between associating w/delinquent peers and engaging in delinquent behaviour - Lipsey & Deron – 12-14 year olds who associated w/delinquent peers more likely to engage in delinquency - McCord et al. – peer approval of delinquent behaviour, allegiance to delinquent peers, time spent w/delinquent peers, and peer pressure for delinquency are associated w/juvenile ASB - Gang membership more predictive of ASB than associating w/delinquent peers - Farrington – presence of delinquent siblings acts much like delinquent peers - Juveniles who are socially isolated with withdrawn are at an increased risk for ASB Community - Living in a low-income neighbourhood - Assault when committing a felony/robbery is twice as common for offenders raised in low income neighbourhoods than juveniles raised in middle class homes - Low income neighbourhoods give rise to opportunity to witness violence - Farrell & Bruce – exposure to community violence related to juvenile offending - Brewer et al. – having access to weapons also increase the risk for violence Box 5.4 A Look at Gangs - 3 elements to a youth gang: individuals involve must identify themselves as a group; other ppl see the members as a distinct group; group members commit “delinquent” acts - Gangs comprised of individuals from low SES and belong to minority ethnic backgrounds o 25% black, 21% aboriginals, 18% white; 94% male - Increased female membership in Aboriginal youth gangs - 2002 – approx. 434 gangs in Canada, about 700 members - Top 3 provinces are Ontario, Saskatchewan, British Columbia - Erickson & Butters – as gang presence in school increased, so did the number of guns and amount of drugs What do Canadian Youth Report? - Department of Justice Canada – slightly less than 40% of youth reported engaging in at least one antisocial act - 5 main correlates of delinquency for males and females: inconsistent & inadequate parenting, history of victimization, antisocial peer involvement, negative school attachment, aggression PROTECTIVE FACTORS - Child who has multiple risk factors but who can overcome them and prevail have been termed resilient - Resilient children may have protective factors allowing them to persevere in face of adversity - Protective factors introduced by Garmezy o Identified areas where protectiveness can be present: genetic variables, personality dispositions, supportive family environments, community supports - Protective factors: variable of factor that if present decreases the likelihood of a negative outcome or increases the likelihood of a positive outcome - Rutter identifies 4 ways protective factors are effective: o Reduce negative outcomes by changing the level of the child’s exposure to a risk factor o Change negative chain reaction following exposure to risk o Help develop and maintain self-esteem and self-efficacy o Avail opportunities to children they would not otherwise have Individual - Intelligence and commitment to education - Exceptional social skills, child competencies, confident perceptions, values, attitudes, and beliefs can serve to protect a child from engaging I juvenile offending - Strongest protective individual factor  having intolerant attitude toward ASB - Being female and perception that peers disprove of ASB Familial - Positive qualities of parents and home environment - Supportive relationship with an adult - Parental supervision and secure parent-child attachments School - Children who are committed to school may be less likely to commit ASB for fear of reducing their academic potential - Participating in extracurricular activities Peer - Associating w/good peers protects against antisocial behaviour - Associating w/peers who disapprove of ASB is protective against performing antisocial acts Community - Social cohesion - Little research done on this factor Box 5.5 Turning to Big Brothers and Big Sisters - Adult volunteers are screened to be paired w/a child/youth - Adults are matched on background, preferences of the youth/adult, geographic proximity - Youth paired w/BB or BS were less likely to use drugs or alcohol than youth on waitlist (18 months)  effect even larger for minority youth - 50% of the matches don’t have ongoing relationships GENDER SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN RISK AND PROTECTION - Fagon et al. – examined gender similarities and differences for risk and protective factors o 22 risk and protective factors were assessed from grade 10 using self-reports o Stronger association to serious offending for males across 12 factors out of 22 o Males may be involved in more serious crime because of greater exposure to risk factors and lower exposure to protective factors ASSESSMENT Assessing the Youth Under 12 Years Old - Behavioural probs first identified at school - Psychological assessment may be recommended by school - Clinical must obtain consent to assess from both child and parent - Children’s emotional and behavioural difficulties can be categorized as internalizing (emotional difficulties) or externalizing problems (behavioural difficulties) - Externalizing probs can develop into more persistent/serious antisocial acts - Males more likely to have externalizing difficulties (10:1) - 3 childhood psychiatric diagnoses that occur with some frequency in juvenile offenders are: o Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: inattention and restlessness that isn’t developmentally appropriate o Oppositional defiant disorder: patterns of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behaviour o Conduct disorder: constellation of antisocial behaviours occurring during childhood that have persisted for at least 6 months - Approx. 50% of children who meet the criteria for CD receive diagnoses of ADHD in adulthood Rates of Behaviour Disorders in Children - 5-15% of children display severe behavioural probs - Behavioural disorders co-occur o 20-50% of children w/ADGS have symptoms consistent w/CD or ODD - Internalizing problems may be more severe in children w/CD Assessing the Adolescent - Once adolescent’s ASB receives the attention of the courts, a court ordered assessment may be issued o Consent is not needed - Juveniles are assessed so that resources can be used effectively and the risk to the community is reduced - Task of identifying risk factors for juvenile offenders who will reoffend is different than for adults o Children don’t have enough years to examine history of behaviour o Children may display behaviour that is adaptive to their environment o Challenge to separate development issues from persistent personality PREVENTION, INTERVENTION, AND TREATMENT OF JUVENILE OFFENDING - 3 levels: o Primary intervention strategies: strategies implemented prior to an violence occurring w/the goal of decreasing its likelihood later o Secondary intervention strategies: strategies that attempt to reduce the frequency of violence o Tertiary intervention strategies: strategies that attempt to prevent violence from reoccurring Primary Intervention Strategies - Family oriented strategies - Family based intervention efforts can be either: parental focused interventions ( directed at assisting parents to recognize warning signs for later juvenile violence and/or training parents to effectively manage any behavioural problems that arise) or family supportive interventions (interventions that connect at-risk families to various support services) - Example of family oriented strategy is “The Incredible Years Parenting Program” o 12 weeks, starts w/strong emotional bond between parent/child o Parents of high risk children tend to discontinue the training at rates that may exceed 50% - Parenting programs are usually part of more comprehensive programs School Oriented Strategies - Preschool programs, social skills training, broad based social interventions designed to alter the school environment - Project Head Start designed for kids from low SES - CBT usually a component of social skills programs - SST w/CBT beneficial in short term - “Social process intervention” alters the school environment o Increasing connections among students w/learning probs, assisting in transition from elementary to high school o Improve academic success, but unclear on reducing likelihood of juvenile offending Community-Wide Strategies - Canada 1985: SNAP Under 12 Outreach Project (ORP) - ORP standardized 12 week outpatient programs w/5 key components: o SNAP children’s club – a structured group that teaches kids a cognitive-behavioural self-control and problem-solving technique called SNAP (stop now an plan) o Concurrent SNAP parenting group teaches parents effective child management strategies o One-on-one family counselling based on SNAP parenting o Individual befriending children who aren’t connected with positive structured activities into their community and require additional support o Academic tutoring to assist children who aren’t performing at an age-appropriate grade level - ORP’s effectiveness assessed in Toronto by Augimeri et al. o 16 pairs of kids matched on age, sex, severity of delinquency, and then randomly assigned to the ORP or to a control program that receives a less intensive version of ORP o Data collected at 5 intervals: once at pre-treatment and 4 times post-treatment o Significant decrease in eternalizing behaviours for children in ORP group compared to control ORP group o Difference was NOT significant Secondary Intervention Strategies - Directed at juveniles who have either had contact w/the police or criminal justice system or have demonstrated behavioural probs at school - Same approaches used in primary intervention - Main differences is the target rather than the content of the intervention - Diversion programs, alternative and vocational education, family therapy, skills-training - Diversion programs divert youth offenders from juvenile justice system o Belief that justice system may cause more harm than good - Multisystematic Theory o Examines a child across the contexts in which they live o 4 year randomized study conducted across Ontario o 200 families received MST, 200 families accessed services thru social services o All families underwent psychological testing prior to and after study o All youth followed for 3 years following end of study, MST was not found to be more effective than typical services available in Ontario - In USA, MST more effective than incarceration, probation, individual counselling Tertiary Intervention Strategies - Aimed at juveniles who have engaged in criminal acts and who may have already been processed thru formal court proceedings - More of a treatment than prevention - Minimized impact of existing risk factors and foster development of protective factors - Inpatient treatment, community based treatment - Shorter stays in institutional settings and greater involvement w/community services are more effective for violent juveniles Box 5.7 Scared Straight - Developed in US to scare at risk kids to not chase a life of crime - Inmates make aggressive presentations about life in jail - Based on theory of deterrence - This program has changed to become more educational and less aggressive - Petrosino – scared straight type programs produced a 1-28% increase in crime Box 5.8 Boot Camps - Boot camps are a military style environment to rehabilitate juvenile offenders - Underlying principles of boot camps are: deter future crime by increasing degree of punishment; promote self- discipline; develop accountability by focusing on structure and hard work - Project Turnaround – Ontario’s boot camp in Barrie o Approx. 33% offenders reoffended after completing their stay, compared to 50% in traditional custodial facilities - Young offenders who completed a boot camp in US perceived it as a more controlled, active, structural environment - Although boot camps have positive perceptions, they don’t significantly reduce recidivism rates GUIDING PRINCIPLES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REDUCING ASB - Programs that target both families and child in both school and community - Although most comprehensive programs are most promising, they most challenges given availability of resources, coordination of services, commitment of participants - Different interventions needed for life-course persistent (comprehensive & extensive programs) and adolescent- limited (school based programs) CHAPTER 7: VIOLENT OFFENDING: GENERAL VIOLENCE & HOMOCIDE Robert: A Persistently Violent Offender - 36 year old fourth-time federal offender currently serving three-year sentence at Kingston Penitentiary - After being released from his last term, he went on a “spree”, threatened to kill a man; used counterfeit money; broke ex-girlfriend’s window; threatened to kill a woman - Once taken into custody he assaulted & threatened many correctional officers & offenders - Has long history of criminal behaviour, spends great deal of time in segregation while incarcerated - His biological (criminal) father left his mother before he was born, raised by mom & alcoholic step-father who threw him out when he was 11 for disruptive behaviour - Went from foster home to foster home, eventually robbed convenience at knifepoint at 16 - Worked a total of six months & one week in his entire life, lives on the street, never married - Usually drunk or high when offences are committed - All his friends are involved in crime, he is financially poor - Says he wants to change but doesn’t INTRODUCTION - Robert’s violent behaviour may be explained by his biology, adverse childhood environment, social disadvantages, direct & vicarious learning experiences, beliefs about the costs & benefits of violence, antisocial associates, impulsivity, hostility, poor problem solving ability, or substance abuse DEFINING AGRESSION & VIOLENCE - Human aggression defined as “any behaviour directed towards another individual that is carried out with the proximate intent to cause harm. In addition, the perpetrator must believe that the behaviour will harm the target, & that the target is motivated to avoid the behaviour.” - Violence defined as “aggression that has extreme harm as its goal (i.e., death)” Prevalence of Violence - Violent crime accounts for 1 in 8 incidents in Canada - Rate of violent crime in 2007 was 930/100,000 ppl - Robbery considered violent offence because it involves an implied threat of violence - In 2007: 11% of all robberies involved a firearm, 60% involved no weapon, PEI had lowers rate of robbery & Manitoba the highest - Robbery rates decreased since ‘90s for robbery involving firearm, but increased for robbery without weapon - Violent crime by youth has increased steadily over past 20 years - The General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization reflects reports from the Canadian population aged 15+ on their criminal victimization o According to 2004 GSS, only 33% of violent incidents reported to police o Reporting to police more likely in incidents involving physical injury & for incidents involving weapons o Most common reasons for not reporting crime was victim dealt with incident in another way, not important enough, did not want police involved, felt it was personal matter, did not think police involvement could help, fear of retaliation from perpetrator Victim Characteristics - Men more likely to experience non-sexual violence than women - Women more likely to experience sexual violence than men - Excluding spousal violence, approximately half of violent crimes reported committed by someone known to victim o Under half (44%) committed by strangers - Being young, being single, often going on in evening, living in cities - Violent victimization higher among 15-24 year olds than older ppl in Canada - Evening activities include going to bars or visiting friends Consequences for Victims - In 2004: 25% of violent crimes resulted in physical injury to victims - In 25% of violent crimes, victims reported crime caused difficulty functioning in everyday activities - Common emotional reactions were anger; feeling upset, confused, or frustrated; feeling fearful Hostile versus Instrumental Violence - Hostile aggression is an impulsive reaction to some real or perceived provocation or threat o Man who comes home from work to find his wife in bed w/another man, goes into a rage & assaults other man - Instrumental aggression is premeditated & aimed at achieving some secondary goal o Man plans to rob another man leaving a bank, demand’s wallet but victim says no so robber punches him/beats him & then victim gives him wallet, robber leaves o In this case, violence could have been avoided if victim gave wallet the first time - Kockler & Meloy – hostile aggression been referred to as affective, impulsive, reactive, emotional, expressive aggression o Instrumental aggression generally similar to predatory, premeditated, or proactive aggression - Bushman & Anderson – conceptualize both hostile & instrumental aggression as characterized by intention to harm at proximate level, & differing in their goals primarily at ultimate level o Hired assassin who murders for money is actually instrumental: proximate goal is harm victim, ultimate goal is get paid - Vitacco, Neuman, Caldwell, Leistico, Van Rybroek: developed the Instrumental Aggression Rating Measure to assess the extent to which violence is instrumental versus hostile, 5 items below: o Planning or preparation before aggression o Goal directed – the act helped obtain a specific & identifiable goal (e.g., money) o Aggressive behaviour was unprovoked by victim o Lack of anger during aggression o Victim of aggression was a stranger - Highest ratings on items above associated with instrumental aggression - Hostile & instrumental aggression bay ne viewed as opposite ends of a continuum EXPLAINING VIOLENCE Social Learning Theory - SLT suggests aggression is learned, aggression is more likely to occur when it is expected to be more rewarding than non-aggressive alternatives - Operant conditioning – behaviour shaped by its consequences (reinforcement or punishment) - Bandura argued ppl learn not only from direct experience, but from observing behaviour of others & outcomes of others’ behaviour - Self-reinforcement refers to influence of self-administered rewards or punishments for aggression (i.e., feeling guilty or feeling pleased) General Aggression Model (GAM) - Integration of number of smaller, more specific theories of aggressive behaviour - Describes the processes involved in any one episode among an ongoing series of episodes of a social encounter - Main components are inputs from person & situation, the routes that mediate the influence of inputs, & appraisal & decision processes that lead to particular action in episode - Outcome influences social encounter, which provides input for next episode - Cognition, affect, arousal all interconnected in GAM & each may influence the other Evolutionary Psychological Perspective - Championed for some time by Dr. Vern Quinsey - Lalumiere et al: propose most violent ppl fall in one of three groups o Young men o Competitively disadvantaged men o Psychopaths - Adolescent & young men typically have low resources & low status & increase their status & resources thru violence but as they move into adulthood the begin to get legitimately gained resources & status, so the costs of violence begin to outweigh the benefits so they switch from short-term high risk strategies to long term low-risk strategies  most common violent offender - Competitively disadvantage men are life-course persistent – ability to compete for resources & status in prosocial ways impaired by neurodevelopmental insults (i.e., low IQ) - Psychopaths are also life-course persistent but they are not competitively disadvantaged, they select short-term high-risk strategies as an alternate approach RISK ASSESSMENT Recidivism Rates - Violent recidivism less frequent - Bonta, Law, Hanson: meta-analysis of recidivism of mentally disorder offenders; found average violent recidivism rate of 24.5% & general recidivism rate of 45.8% over mean follow up period of 4.8 years - Campbell, French, Gendreau: non-mentally disordered offenders; found similar rates of violent recidivism Approaches - 4 key categories described: o Unstructured clinical judgment: assessors arrive at an estimate of risk based on their own idiosyncratic decisions about what factors to consider and how to combine those factors o Empirical actuarial: follows explicit rules about what factors to consider and how to combine those factors to arrive at a finale estimate of risk. A selection and combination of items are derived from their observed statistical relationship with recidivism. Provides tables linking scores to expected recidivism rates. o Mechanical: following explicit rules about what factors to consider and how to combine those factors to arrive at a final estimate of risk; the selection and combination of times are derived from theory or reviews of the empirical literature and tables are provided o Professional judgement: not in glossary Instruments Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) - VRAG: empirical actuarial risk-assessment instrument designed to estimate risk for violent recidivism - Developed with 618 patients at Oak Ridge, maximum-security forensic psychiatric institution in Penetanguishene, Ontario - VRAG consists of 12 static items selected from initial pool of approx. 50 variables - Scores on VRAG range from -26 to +38, higher scored indicating greater risk of violent recidivism HCR-20 Violence Risk Assessment Scheme - HCR-20: a structural professional judgement instrument designed to assess risk for violence - Consists of 10 historical items, 5 clinical items, 5 risk management items - Historical items include previous violence, age at first violent incident, relationship instability, employment probs, mental illness, psychopathy, early maladjustment, personality disorder, prior supervision failure - Clinical items are dynamic, reflect current functioning - Risk management items concern future circumstances that are encountered in institution or community that could increase/decrease risk - Each item scored on 3-point scale: 0 indicates factor not present, 2 indicates factor may be present, 3 indicates factor is present Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) - SAQ: a self-report empirical actuarial risk-assessment instrument developed o estimate risk of violent and non- violent recidivism - 67 items grouped into 6 subscales: o Criminal tendencies assesses antisocial attitudes, beliefs, behaviours, feelings o Antisocial personality problems assesses antisocial personality characteristics o Conduct problems assesses childhood behavioural problems o Criminal history assess past criminal behaviour o Alcohol/drug abuse assesses substance abuse o Antisocial associates assesses association with antisocial peers - Higher subscale & total scored indicate higher risk for violent & non-violent recidivism - Two new subscales added: Anger & Validity, do not contribute to the total score o Anger used to assess degree to which anger is present o Validity used to evaluate the degree to which responses can be trusted - Can be completed in 15 mins, doesn’t require assessors to conduct extensive file reviews or interviews like most other risk assessment instruments - Offenders are considered unreliable sources of info because they may respond deceptively Accuracy - Primary concern with violent risk assessment instruments is extent to which they are accurate - Two predictions can be made for a given offender: either offender will violently recidivate or the offender will not violently recidivate - Four possibilities: o True positive: predicted offender will violently recidivate & he does o True negative: predicted offender will not violently recidivate & he does not o False positive: predicted that offender will violently recidivate actually he doesn’t o False negative: predicted offender will not violently recidivate & he actually does - As false positives decrease, false negative increase & vice versa - As true positive decrease, true negative increase & vice versa - Campbell, French, Gendreau: SAQ & VRAG among best predictors of violent recidivism Mental Disorder - On VRAG, diagnosis of schizophrenia reduces risk of violent recidivism - HCR-20, presence of major mental illness is risk factor for future violence - So is mental illness a risk factor or not? Yes & no. - When focus is on entire population, answer is yes - Elevated violence associated with “threat/control-override” psychotic symptoms, in which one feels that their self-control is overridden by outside forces, or feels they will be harmed by others - When focusing on offenders or offensive psychiatric patients, researchers found that psychiatric diagnoses & symptoms do not predict violent recidivism or they are predictive of reduced violent recidivism TREATMENT & MANAGEMENT Box 7.2 Correctional Service of Canada’s Violence Prevention Program - Cognitive-behavioural reintegration program for incarcerated federal offenders - Intended to help offenders who have already committed at least two violent offences o who are considered at high risk to commit violent crimes - VPP integrates variety of rehabilitative approaches - Social learning & social information processing - Primary intervention approach is cognitive behavioural & skills based, emphasis on violence prevention - 120 two-hour sessions, plus two testing sessions - Program is 4 months - Principal interventions: o Making change; violence awareness; anger control; solving problems; social attitudes; positive relationships; resolving conflicts; positive lifestyles; self-control; violence prevention Effectiveness - Dowden & Andrews: conducted meta-analysis of studies on treatment & violent recidivism o Treatment associated with significant reductions in violent recidivism, whereas sanctions were not - Dowden & Andrews also examined whether reductions in violent recidivism for treated versus comparison groups would be greater when programs adhered to the risk, need, & responsivity principles than when they did not o Findings were supportive of these principles for maximizing the effectiveness of treatment - The greater number of principles the programs adhered to, the greater the observed reductions in violent recidivism - Joliffe & Farrington: meta-analysis on the effectiveness of general violence programs with generally violent offenders o Lower rates of violent recidivism in treated group than comparison group - Joliffe & Farrington: examined some potential moderators of treatment effectiveness, such as features of the treatments & research design o Determined whether given program included of following elements:  Addressed offenders’ anger  Included cognitive-behavioural skills training  Included training about morals  Used role-playing for training  Addressed empathy  Included relapse prevention planning o Treatments that included moral training or empathy training were not significantly associated with reductions in violent recidivism o Treatments delivered by psychologists were not significantly associated with reductions in violent recidivism, but treatments delivered by correctional/probation officers significantly associated with reductions in violent recidivism - Two key issues is these sorts of studies are random assignment & attrition - Non-completion of treatment associated with increased violent recidivism - Most conservative way to deal with attrition is to retain all offenders who had been assigned to treatment (whether they completed it or not) in an analytic comparison with the untreated group – “intention to treat” EXTREME FORMS OF VIOLENCE: HOMICIDE - 2007: 584 homicides reported to police in Canada – 1.8/100,000 ppl - Homicide rates decreasing since 70s - Typically highest in western provinces & territories - Proportion of homicides that are gang-related has been increasing over past decade - Most common methods used in homicide: o Shooting > stabbing > beating > suffocation > vehicle > fire > shaken baby syndrome - Most homicides committed by an acquaintance or family member rather than stranger Types of Homicide - First degree murder: planned & deliberate, if victim is peace officer or prison employee, or victim’s death is caused while committing or attempting to commit hijacking of plane, sexual assault, kidnapping, hostage taking, criminal harassment, terrorist activity, use of explosive in association with a criminal organization, or intimidation - Second degree murder: murder that is not first degree - Infanticide: a female person commits infanticide when by a wilful act or omission she causes the death of her newly-born child, if at the time of the act or omission she is not fully recovered from the effects of giving birth to the child & by reason thereof of the effect of lactation consequent on the birth of the child her mind is then disturbed - Manslaughter: committed during heat of passion or caused by sudden provocation that would overwhelm one’s self-control; if death results from criminal negligence Multiple Murders: Definitions & Characteristics - Multiple murder defined as killing three or more victims; divided into: - Mass murder: killing 3 or more victims in a single location with no “cooling-off” period between murders o Mark Lepine – mass murdered 14 women & then himself in Montreal o Valery Frabikant – killed 4 fellow profs at Concordia University o Pierre Lebrun – killed 4 employees & then himself at head office of Ottawa-Carleton Transpo - Spree murder: killing 3 or more victims at two or more locations with no cooling-off period between murders - Serial murder: killing 3 or more ppl, usually in different locations, with a cooling-off period between murders o Clifford Olson – murdered 8 girls & 3 boys in B.C. o Paul Bernardo & Karla Homolka – killed 3 teenage girls in Ontario o Robert Pickton – murdered several women in B.C. - Hickey: most serial murderers are male, commit murders alone, are white, & usually victimize young female strangers Box 7.3 Concordia University Massacre - Valery Fabrikant shot 4 profs & 1 secretary on campus - Convicted & given maximum sentence without possibility of parole for 25 years - He pleaded not guilty, said he was provoked by unjust treatment suffered at the university - None of the victims had been a major figure in the disputes that led up to the murderous rampage Box 7.4 Robert Pickton - Lived + worked on pig farm in B.C. - Charged with murders of 26 women, most of whom prostitutes - Brought prostitutes to trailer & killed them - First trial dealt with 6 murder charges, he was convicted of 2 degree murder & sentenced to life with eligibility of parole after 25 years Typologies of Serial Murderers - Holmes et al.: identified 4 major types of serial murderers: o Visionary: this type of serial murderer is psychotic and is commanded to kill by an inner voice/apparition o Mission-oriented: not psychotic & takes it upon him/herself to rid world of particular group of ppl he/she views as undesirable o Hedonistic: kills for sexual gratification or materialistic gains o Power/control: desires total capture of the victim &wants to hold the rate of the victim in his/her hands CHAPTER 8: FAMILY VIOLENCE - Susan married her college sweetheart Matthew - He became verbally & eventually physically abusive towards her - She went to a medical clinic to get treatment for a fractured wrist (caused by Matthew) & the physician suspected domestic abuse - Susan denied the allegation; believed if she could change her behaviour Matthew would be happier & stop the abuse INTRODUCTION - Fail is place where someone can feel loved, secure, & safe - Some families have abuse, fear, & a lack of emotional bonds that can lead to violence - Children who experience abuse become abusers themselves; it becomes a cycle - Family violence most prevalent form of violence in society - Victims & perpetrators know each other & there is often & ongoing relationship prior to, during, & after violent episode - Some forms of family violence are sanctioned (i.e., physical punishment of children) or considered normal (i.e., siblings fighting) & therefore not considered criminal VIOLENCE WITHIN THE FAMILY: BACKGROUND ISSUES - Family violence is any violence occurring between members of a family - Family violence has quasi-legitimacy, due primarily to cultural & religious attitudes that placed women and children in subservient roles within the family - No consensus exists for a definition, most current definitions of family violence include non-violent abuse - Prevalence refers to the total number of ppl who have experienced violence in a specified time period - Incidence is the number of new cases identified at a given point in time, usually one year Types of Violence - Psychological/emotional abuse – infliction of mental distress thru insulting, swearing, yelling threatening, etc. - Physical abuse – infliction of pain/injury thru beating, punching, burning, pushing, choking, restraint, etc. - Financial/material abuse – illegal/improper exploitation of funds of resources thru misusing power of attorney, tricking or threatening a person out of assets, cashing cheques without authorization, etc.; common in elder abuse - Sexual abuse – any kind of sexual behaviour directed toward a child or unwanted sexual behaviour directed toward an adult such as showing of pornography, exposure of genitals, sexual harassment, sexual assault, etc. - Neglect – intentional or unintentional refusal or failure of caregiver to provide adequate care such as inadequate nutrition, clothing, personal care, clean/safe living environment, poor supervision, etc.; most common in children & elderly - Exposure to parental violence – seeing/knowing about parental violence thru any form of psychological or physical violence occurring between parents Ecological Model of Family Violence - Ecological model of family violence provides a useful way to conceptualize the interaction among factors related to violence in intimate relationships, child abuse, & elder abuse - Model focuses on multiple levels of influence in understanding family violence, including individual, relationship, community, & societal factors INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE - Intimate partner violence occurs between intimate partners who are living together or separated - It includes physical, sexual, financial, & emotional abuse Intimate Partners: A Potential for Risk - 51% of women reported at least one incident of physical or sexual violence since the age of 16 according to 1993 Stats Canada - Although abuse against women occurs at all socio-demographic levels, a recent study by DeKeseredy, Schwartz, & Alvi found much higher rates of abuse in women living in Ontario public housing compared to rates reported in ’04 national survey - Dekeseredy et al. found 19% of women reported have been physically assaulted in past year, 8X the avg reported in national survey - WHO: lifetime rates of physical violence ranged from 13% in Japan to 61% in Peru; sexual violence ranged from 6% in Japan & Serbia to 59% in Ethiopia; physical & sexual violence experienced more by women in rural as compared to urban setting - International Dating Violence Study o Israel had lowest rate of physical assault to university students by dating partner within 12 months o Canadian dating violence rates in the lower half of eh nations surveyed; 1 in 5 Canadian university students reported have experienced physical assault by their dating partners in the previous 12 months o In contrast, U.S. & Canada had high rates of sexual coercion compared to other countries o Greece highest rate of sexual coercion & severe assaults o Mexico had highest rate of any assault - Police data only include forms of spousal abuse that are chargeable under the Canadian Criminal Code (psychological & financial abuse are usually excluded) - Spousal violence more common in Nunavut, PEI, Quebec, Alberta; lowest in B.C., New Brunswick, Nova Scotia o Due to differences in social isolation, younger couples, higher levels of unemployment, higher rates of alcohol consumption, more common-law marriages, proportion of Aboriginals - Majority of women who are abused do not call police - Akers & Kaukinen: married women less likely to report violence to police; women with children living at home who witness their abuse more likely to contact police; minority women more likely than Caucasian women to report spousal violence; likelihood of reporting increases with age Box 8.1 Conflict Tactics Scale - Murray Straus developed the conflict tactics scale to assess how a person & their partner resolve conflict - CTS consists of 18 items ranging from constructive problem-solving to verbal aggression & physical aggression - Respondents indicate how often they have used different methods & how often they have experienced these acts - Many limitations: o Failure to assess for the context & purpose of violent acts o Few items measuring psychological aggression o No assessment of sexual aggression o No assessment of the consequences of aggression - Straus et al. developed the CTS-2 with improvements to the limitations above - Simpsons & Christensen: had 273 treatment-seeking couples complete the CTS-2; both men & women reported their partner had committed more aggressive acts that they had committed Triggers for Violence - Battered women’s answers to what triggers violent incidents: o Not obeying or arguing with the man o Not having food ready on time o Not caring adequately for the children or home o Questioning the man about money or girlfriends o Going somewhere without the man’s permission o The man suspecting the woman of infidelity o Refusing the man sex - In some countries, men perceive themselves as “owners” of their wives & children - In Egypt, 57% of urban women + 81% of rural women believe a man is justified in beating wife if she refuses sex - In New Zealand, majority of men believe under no circumstances should you physically abuse a woman; 5% agree physical force would be justified if the man found his wife in bed with another man - WHO: asked women under which circumstances a man would be justified in beating his wife; most common reasons were not completing housework, refusing sex, disobeying husband, being unfaithful; most acceptable reason to refuse sex was illness, least acceptable was doesn’t want to have sex Box 8.2 Studying Intimate Violence in the Lab - Dutton & Browning: conducted one of the first analogue lab studies to examine the influence of abandonment themes in groups of violent men - Presented video or audio clips of woman telling her husband she was joining a women’s consciousness-raising group & was spending the weekend with a group of women in another city - Tested 3 groups: who’d engaged in intimate partner violence, generally violent men, non-violent men - Men who’d engaged in intimate partner violence reported higher rates of anxiety & anger to the clips - Costa & Babcock: men asked to imagine two scenarios: first they overheard their female partner flirting with another man, then asked to imagine their female partner criticizing them to a female friend - After each scenario, subjects asked to verbalize how it made them feel - Researchers found no group differences in men’s verbalizations after the first scenario but found that intimately violent men were more likely to express anger during the criticism scenario & non-violent men were more likely to express sadness Theories of Intimate Violence - Patriarchal theory assumes a long-standing set of cultural beliefs & values that support the idea that the male dominance of women contributes to the domestic assault of women by men o Dobash & Dobash: seeds of wife bearing lie in the subordination of females & in their subjection of male authority & control o Yllo & Straus: showed degree of patriarchal attitude positively correlated w/rate of intimate violence o Patriarchal theory provides incomplete explanation of intimate violence & cannot predict which individuals will engage in it o Dutton argues additional variables are necessary to account for intimate violence, including community, family, individual characteristics - Social learning theory originally proposed by Bandura & extended by Dutton to account for intimate violence o Three major elements related to aggression: origins, instigators, regulators o Key feature of SLT is how individuals acquire new behaviours, especially aggression o Men who engage in intimate violence are more likely to have witnessed parental violence than men who don’t engage in intimate violence o Acquired behaviours are only manifested if an appropriate event in the environment, called an instigator, acts as a stimulus  Aversive instigators at stimuli that individual attempts to avoid, produce emotional arousal  Incentive instigators are stimuli that are perceived as rewards to engaging in aggression  Delusional instigators are associated with bizarre belief systems, such as delusional jealousy o Behaviour is regulated by the outcomes it generates o Regulators include external punishment & self-punishment; consequences of violence that result in an increase or decrease in the probability of future violence o Likelihood of intimate violence should be reduced if the consequences for violence are exceeded by incentives for engaging in non-violent behaviour & if alternatives are provided to attenuate the effect of any instigators Male Victims of Intimate Violence - Women engage in more minor violence than men - Belief that males are the primary instigators is false - Incidence of men being injured by women is surprisingly high - Gender bias also present in police responses to domestic violence - Brown: when female partner injured, male charged in 91% of cases; when male injured, female charged only 60% of the time; when no injury occurred, men charged 52% of the time & females 13% of the time - If charged, women are less likely to be found guilty - Major factor for low percentage of women found guilty was that male victim not willing to testify - Follingstad et al.: found gender bias even extends to psychologists; presented scenarios but reversed the genders of the protagonists in the scenario & found that the same behaviour was rated more abusive & severe when it was carried out by a male than when carried out by a female Typologies of Male Batterers - Holtzworth-Munroe & Stuart: identified 3 types of male batterers - Family only batterer type displays following characteristics: o Engages in lowest level of intimate violence o Is infrequently violent outside the home & rarely engages in other criminal acts o Does not show much psychopathology o Has few risk factors o Aggression triggered by stress - Generally violent/antisocial batterer: o Engages in moderate to high levels of intimate violence o Frequently violent outside home & engages in other criminal acts o Has antisocial & psychopathic personality features o Substance abuse problems o Problems with impulsivity & many violence-supportive beliefs o Attachment style best described as dismissive - Dysphoric-borderline batterer: o Engages in moderate to severe levels of intimate violence o Usually focuses violence on female partners o High rates of mood disorders o Has borderline personality features such as instability, jealousy, & fear of rejection o Experienced childhood abuse o Attachment style best described as preoccupied - Gondolf: thee-tier typology based on the severity & generalizability of violence o Type I or sociopath engages in most severe levels of violence in & outside the home o Type II or antisocial is primarily violent within the home & less likely to have criminal record o Type III or typical engages in less severe violence, engages in violence within the home & least likely to have a criminal record - Hamberger & Hastings: 3 types of male batterers o Low-risk non-pathological – engages in family only violence o Passive aggressive-dependent type with attachment & psychopathological probs o Antisocial type – engages in high levels of violence in & outside the home - Gottman et al: heart rate of male batterers at rest & during conflict o Type I or “cobra group” – decreased heart rate when verbally abusive, highly violent in & outside home o Type II or “pitbull group” – increased heart rate when verbally abusive, violent mostly inside home, insecure & emotionally dependent Victim’s Response to Abuse - Factors that keep women in abusive relationship: o Fear of retribution o Lack of economic support o Concern for children o Emotional dependence o Lack of support from friends & family o Hope that the man will change o Fear of being socially ostracized (in developing countries) - Ending relationship bay lead to unwanted behaviour by ex-partner like stalking - Top 5 resources used were emotional support from friends/family, professional counselling, medication for emotional problems, welfare, & support group or self-help group - Top 5 resources in terms of helpfulness were subsidized day care, religious or spiritual counselling, subsidized housing, welfare, educational support - Top 5 barriers to using help/resources: o “I wanted to handle the problem myself” o “I thought the problem would go away” o “I was unsure about where to go to whom to see” o “I didn’t think treatment would work” o “I was concerned about how much money it would cost” - Women need emotional support but need more tangible support to obtain self-sufficiency Typologies of Female Victims - Roberts & Roberts developed typology that classified victims into 5 types based on duration & severity of abuse using interviews w/501 battered women o Level 1/short term group: mild to moderate intensity violence; less than one year in the dating relationship; leaving relationship shortly after onset of violence; middle class w/higher education; support system present o Level 2/intermediate group: moderate to severe intensity violence; 3-15 incidents; cohabitant/married for up to 2 years; leaves when violence escalates; middle class; caring support system o Level 3/intermittent long-term group: severe violence w/long periods w/o violence; 4-30 incidents; married w/kids; leaves when kids grow up; middle to upper class, reliant on husband’s resources; no support system o Level 4/chronic + predictable: severe + frequent violence including weapons & death threats; 100+ violent acts; married w/kids; substance abuse by husband; abuse continues until husband arrested/hospitalized/dies; lower to middle class o Level 5/homicidal group: severe + frequent violence; 100+ violent acts; long-term marriage or separated; abuse ends when woman kills partner; suffers depression, suicidal ideation, PTSD, battered woman’s syndrome - Level 1 & 2 women may benefit from crisis intervention, psychotherapy, support groups, restraining orders - Level 3 & 4 will likely need more intensive psychotherapy Intimate Violence: What are the Risk Factors? - Combination of individual, situation, social, community factors cause intimate violence - Young age & low income, exposure to parental violence as a child RISK ASSESSMENT - Domestic violence risk appraisal guide empirically derived 14-item measure designed to predict spousal assault recidivism in male spousal assault offenders o Designed to be used by frontline police officers o Scores can range from -10 to +41 and divided into 7 risk categories o Probability rate of recidivism of category 1 is 14% & 100% for category 7 - Spousal assault risk assessment designed to assess risk for spousal assault in male offenders o Uses structured professional judgement approach to risk assessment & was developed by group of researchers in B.C. o Consists of 20 risk factors: 10 general violence risk factors & 10 spousal violence risk factors - Hanson, Helmus & Bourgon: investigated effectiveness of different approaches; DVRAG & VRAG most accurate Treatment: What Works - Duluth Domestic Abuse Intervention Project (DAIP) aka Duluth model: goal of program is to prevent future violence; focuses on men’s use of power & control; focuses on changing patriarchal beliefs; very high dropout rate observed in some programs using this model - Duluth model criticized a lot: o Dutton & Corvo: argue the model ant its underlying ideological assumptions is incompatible w/progressive social theory and policy o Debate concerning its effectiveness - Other type of treatment is based on social learning models of violence and use cognitive-behavioural techniques o i.e. Family Violence Prevention Program CHILD ABUSE - Child abuse: any act or omission that results in harm or threatened harm to the health/welfare of the child - Many reasons why child abuse remains hidden: may not be able to communicate what has happened to them or may not be believed; fear punishment if they tell or that they may be taken away from parents; abusers might bribe/manipulate/threaten child - In Canada, children most likely to be physically & sexually assaulted by someone they know - Substantial increase in substantiated rates of child abuse occurred between 1998 & 2003; rate of child abuse investigations increased 78% o Most common type of abuse was neglect o Dramatic increase in rate of two types of substantiated abuse occurred: exposure to domestic violence & emotional maltreatment; the only decrease in rates was for sexual abuse - What accounts for the increase in investigations of child abuse? 4 explanations: o Actual increase in the rates of child maltreatment o Changes in legislation or child welfare policies o Differences in study methodologies o Changes in reporting by professionals & public - Rates of abuse approximately the same across boys & girls for all forms of abuse except for sexual abuse - Sexual abuse most often committed either by a non-parental relative or by someone outside the family - Police investigations varied dramatically across the different types of abuse, w/sexual abuse & physical abuse prompting largest number of police investigations - Children most likely to be removed from home if they are neglected - Child abuse & witnessing domestic violence often co-occur - “Double whammy” effect used to describe the worse outcomes for children who experience both abuse & exposure to domestic violence To Tell or Not to Tell: Disclosing Childhood Sexual Abuse - Delayed disclosure: victims of childhood sexual abuse often don’t immediately tell someone they’ve been abused - Delayed disclosure particularly salient for childhood sexual abuse - Roesler & Weissman-Wind: average age of abuse onset was 6 years of age, but only 1/3 of the sample disclose the abuse prior to age 18, average age of disclosure was 26 - Smith et al.: investigated length of time women who were raped prior to age 18 delayed disclosing their rape; approximately half the children who’d been raped waited more than 5 fivers before disclosing the abuse; 28% of the cases the child rape victims never told anyone until asked by the researcher What Factors Contribute to Child Abuse? - Herrenkohl et al.: identified two main types of risk factors  family factors & environment/community factors - Child and societal factors also exist, for example, an infant is at higher risk of abuse due to physical frailty & the state of dependency on their mother or caregiver - In societies where boys are preferred, girls are more likely to be neglected - Children w/disabilities at heightened risk for abuse due to cultural prejudices or increased demands the disability may place on family - Aboriginal children much more likely to experience abuse; due to confluence of other risk factors like high rates of poverty, unemployment, alcohol abuse, household crowding - Many individuals associated w/these risk factors do NOT abuse their children Box 8.4 Corporal Punishment: Discipline or Abuse? - Majority of parents continue to support the use of slapping, spanking, or roughly grabbing their children to enforce discipline, current laws permit use of corporal punishment at home - Corporal punishment defined as any punishment in which physical force is used & intended to cause some degree of pain or discomfort, however light - 51% of Canadians believe corporal punishment should be banned, 69% believe teachers should not be allowed to physically discipline children - Criminal Code justifies use of corporal punishment in Canada - Gershoff found that children who were physically punished had more mental health problems, less positive relationships w/their parents, lower levels of moral internalization, increased levels of aggression, increased delinquency & antisocial behaviour Box 8.5 Traditional Practise or Child Abuse? - Some cultures subject kids to painful practices such as mutilation, scarring, branding, tattooing - FGM - done to protect virginity/beautification process & considered important precondition to marriage - Internal minora & external labia majora are cut & edges sutured together, leaving vagina almost sealed - Victim’s legs bound together to encourage scar tissue to form; leads to difficulty in childbirth - About 3 million girls a year go thru this; highest prevalence in Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Guinea, Egypt, Sudan, East & West Africa - FGM illegal in Canada The Consequences of Child Abuse - Consequence depends on type, duration, severity of abuse - Range of emotional, psychological, behavioural issues - Child victims report feeling guilt, shame, fear, PTSD, depression, anxiety - Abused children more likely to become pregnant, drop out of school, suffer depression, attempt suicide, engage in substance use & delinquency - In adulthood, are less securely attached to their partners, have poorer conflict resolution skills, more likely to be depressed or have eating disorders, abuse drugs & alcohol, engage in crime, more vulnerable to future crime - Some studies found that boys who experience abuse more prone to externalizing behaviours such as aggression or delinquency, whereas girls are more likely to exhibit internalizing behaviours such as anxiety or depression - In contrast, other studies have not found gender differences - Resilience is defined as the capacity for children to experience adverse events and yet not experience negative outcomes - Child protective instincts include internal locus of control, high intelligence, positive self-image, strong commitment to school, belief that they want to be different from parents - Family characteristics include at least one stable caregiver, positive perception of one’s mother, positive parent characteristics not experiencing chronic abuse - Community features include positive relationship with caring non-abusive adult, prosocial & supportive peers, involvement w/religious community - Greater the number of protective factors, lower the risk for future delinquency & violence in abused children Box 8.6 Religion or Child Abuse: Polygamy Debate - Sarah called a local distress centre claiming to be a 16 year old child bride forced to marry an older guy who repeatedly raped her at the Yearning for Zion Ranch - Ranch is in Eldorado, Texas and owned by Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints - Children’s Protection Services & law enforcement eventually removed 462 kids from the ranch & put them in protective custody by State of Texas - Eventually Texas Supreme Court ordered all children go back to their families because the removal of children was not warranted, & not sufficient evidence to show kids were being abused - The call from Sarah traced back to 33 year old Rozita Swinton – found guilty of making false calls - Leader of FLDS is Warren Jeffs – serving time in prison for arranging 3 teen marriages; as leader he would assign wives to husbands & could discipline male believers by reassigning their wives to other men - Winston Blackmore ran the FLDS in B.C., Canada, he was followed by James Oler - Both are charged with polygamy but they plan on pleading not guilty because it’s their religious belief Protecting Our Children? - 1960s, Canada introduced child welfare laws that required all suspected cases of child abuse to be investigated - Mandatory reporting: laws that require the reporting of suspected cases of (child) abuse or neglect - Person who witnesses abuse or suspects abuse may not report it because: o Doesn’t want to get involved o Believe abuse not serious enough to warrant reporting o Believe reporting abuse wouldn’t be in child’s best interest or won’t solve problem o Don’t understand their responsibility to report abuse or don’t know to whom they should report abuse o Don’t know that there are no legal consequences unless report is known to be false and made w/malicious intent ELDER MALTREATMENT: THE INVISIBLE VICTIMS - Elder maltreatment: any act or omission that results in harm or threatened harm to the health/welfare of an elderly person - Forgotten area of family violence - WHO defines elder abuse as a single or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person - Leads to poor quality of life, psychological distress, loss of property, multiple heath probs, increased mortality - Examples of elder abuse: o Recently married 79 year old Edmonton man who was left financially stranded after having his life savings drained by 50 year old wife o 53 year old caregiver in Nova Scotia physically assaulted his 98 year old mother, statin he “cracked” from the stress of looking after her o 53 year old room cleaner at Quebec retirement home facing theft charges after stealing bank card from room she was cleaning and robbing resident of life savings o Long-term care centre in Alberta deliberately gave 89 year old women improper medication and hospitalized her for dehydration - Concern over abuse of older ppl heightened by dramatic increase in number of older ppl globally Who Are the Perpetrators? - Children of elder or their spouse; spouses who have lengthy history of spousal abuse Box 8.7 Elder Abuse in Institutions: Hidden Camera - Because of their illnesses, some elder ppl may not be able to tell anyone they have been abused - Two surveys of nursing home staff have been conducted in Canada: o 20% reported witnessing abuse of patients o 31% reported witnessing rough handling of patients o 28% reported witnessing yelling & swearing at patients o 10% reported witnessing other staff hitting or shoving patients - U.S. was just as bad (maybe worse) Screening for Elder Abuse - Screening is when professionals detect an abused individual while excluding a non-abused individual - False negative discourage professionals from gathering more info and will leave elder at risk for continued abuse - False positive can lead to negative outcomes like distress, family tensions, loss of residence, loss of autonomy - Rodriguez et al.: physicians often reluctant to report suspected elder maltreatment Risk Factors for Elder Abuse - Caregiver stress - Social isolation of the victim - Frailty of the victim, functional disability, cognitive impairment - Pathology of the abuser, such as alcohol or substance abuse, mental-health problems, prior history of domestic violence - Dependence of the victim on the abuser or dependence of abuser on victim Consequences of Elder Abuse - Psychological, physical harm, death - Mistreatment related to mortality Laws that Protect Elders from Abuse - 4 types of laws in Canada to protect older adults from abuse & neglect - Family violence laws, criminal laws, adult protection laws, adult guardianship laws - Adult guardianship laws are designed to provide protection to adults who are mentally incapable of protecting or providing for themselves CHAPTER 9: SEXUAL OFFENDERS Pedophilic Child Molester - Arnold serving 4 year sentence for sex offences against 2 kids - Before those 2 kids he had 4 prior sexual offence convictions - Arnold’s dad left his mom and him when he was 2, he was put in foster care 4 due to neglect/abuse from mom
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