Textbook Notes (363,007)
Canada (158,140)
Psychology (9,565)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Nussbaum D

Chapter 5: Juvenile Offending  Children under 12 not charged even if they commit murder— intervention/treatment done to prevent further crimes  Children under 12 under Child and Family Services act  12-18 = young offenders, Youth Criminal Justice Act History  before 19 cen – children and youth commiting crimes tried as adults  1908- Juvenile deliquents act - applied to 7-16 year old, juveniles called “delinquents,” separate court o criticism: informality of youth court, denying youth rights (appeal, legal rep), broad definition of delinquency  1984 – Young Offenders Act replaces – young offenders cognitively different than adults therefore sanctions should be according to dev. Stage, recognition of community protection, granted rights under Charter, 7-12 years old o diversion: decision not to prosecute, but have the offender undergo educational or community service (offender has to plead guilty for this to happen) o Bill c106 introduced to solve the problem of juveniles always pleading guilty to avoid transfer to adult court o Billc37 changed this again  16-17yrs charged with murder/sexual assault automatically in adult court, youth sentencing also changed  Canada has higher incarceration rate for youth in the western world  2003 – Youth criminal justice act replaces YOA – intent is to keep juveniles out of court and custody o prevent youth crime o provide meaningful consequences/encourage responsibility of bx o improve rehab/reintegration into community  under YCJA, once charged, juvenile can no longer be taken to adult court, if juvenile is guilty then they can impose adult sentence if defendant is atleast 14  YCJA – increased extrajucidal measures (community options/less serious alts. Before court)  YCJA – victims are recognized Youth Crime Rates  Legislation may not decrease number of crimes commited by youth, but affects recording of crimes  After YCJA – decrease in property crime, violent crime stayed stable Youth Sentences  Custodial sentences for serious violent crimes, after YCJA – numbers dropped  Most common sentence for juv – probation  New sentences under YCJA – deferred custody and supervision orders Trajectories of Juv. Off  Child Onset: behaviour problems start very early in childhood, very uncommon, most young children with behaviour probems do not go on to become adult offenders  Adolescent onset: behavioural problems start in teen years, more common  Age of onset a critical factor  predicts later life behaviour Theories to explain Juv. Offending  Biological o fathers who engage in antisocial are more likely to have kids like that o Wadsworth (1976): antisocial youth have slower heart rates which means higher threshold for excitability and emotionality o Moffitt and Henry (1989): less frontal lobe inhibition in antisocial youth impulsivity  Cognitive o Focus on thought process, interpretation of social and emotional cues and responses to them attribute hostile intent to normal situations o Cognitive deficits and distortions; limited problem-solving skills in antisocial youth o Types of aggressive behaviour: reactive aggression (emotionally aggressive response to perceived threat) and proactive aggression (aggression directed at achieving a goal or receiving positive reinforcers) o Reactive aggressive youth  deficiency early in cognitive process o Proactive  deficiency in generating alternate responses, choose aggressive one  Social o Learning behaviour from others – children more likely to learn behaviour that gets positive reinforcement, highly aggressive children often witness parents, siblings engaging in same behaviour (intergenerational aggression) o Coercive family process – behaviour in youth develops from imitating parents, and inadequate parental supervision/disciplining o Violent video exposure – reinforces aggression and desensitives to real world violence Risk Factors  Individual – birth complications, maternal care as a fetus, temperment, substance abuse, low verbal intelligence and delayed language…strongest predictor of juvenile offence is aggressive behaviour before age 13  Familial – poor parental supervision, involvement, conflict, abuse/neglect, low SES  School – poor academic performance in elementary scho
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