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PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 6

PSYC39 - chapter 6.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

PSYC39 – Ch.6 Economic Crime Definition - Economic crime = criminal offences where the primary motivation is for economic gain (Freeman, 1996) - To combat economic crime, a partnership must be formed across various levels of government, law enforcement, business and private sectors e.g. the Reporting Economic Crime Online (RECOL) group: joint forces – the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) and the Internet Fraud Complaints Centre (IFCC) Types of Economic Crime White-Collar Crime - White-collar crime = occupational crime VS corporate crime (crime focused on individuals VS organizations) - Occupational crimes = offences committed against businesses and government by perpetrators with a ‘higher’ social status e.g. offenses include expense account fraud, tax evasion - Corporate crimes = offences committed by organizations to advance their own interests e.g. price fixing (companies that all sell the same product decide on a price, preventing price variability for the consumer), payment of kickbacks to manufacturers or retailers - White-collar criminals tend to work for the institution they are stealing from. - Government inspectors (federal, provincial, municipal) are responsible for the enforcement of corporate offences; they have less authority to investigate than police Profiling the typical offender of white-collar crime - Common characteristics of White-collar criminals = high status, respectable, often male, highly educated and in an upper management position (Sutherland, 1949) - Corporate crime – occurs with the support of an organization Occupational crime – committed by an individual offender - Occupational fraudsters were primarily middle class - Common characteristics of victims of organizational crime (Holtfreter, 2005): Organizational type – corporations with large bureaucracies, perceived as making large profits Organizational size – large Internal Controls – low internal controls (greater internal controls, e.g. audits and anonymous reporting systems are less likely to be victimized.) - 3 types of occupational fraud 1. Asset misappropriation - middle-class offenders - usually committed in smaller organizations 2. Corruption - middle-class offenders - victims are mostly large profit-generating corporations 3. Fraudulent statements - high status offenders - primarily made in smaller organizations - Research: Blickle, Schelegel, Fassbender, and Klein (2006) surveyed 76 prisoners and 150 managers working in Germany Findings: white-collar criminals were more hedonistic. (Greater likelihood of giving into temptations where they had the opportunity to make money illegally.) Stronger narcissistic tendencies. Less behavioural self-control. More conscientious Lower integrity Irresponsibility, lack of dependability disregard of rules and social norms - 52% of Canadian companies surveyed had been victims of economic crime. Estimated average loss was US$3.7 million. (PricewaterhouseCoopers) - In U.S., white-collar crime is a low priority compared to violent crime and issue regarding national security, despite greater less ($250 billion VS $17.6b/year) Punishing White-Collar Criminals - National telephone survey: assessing the public’s view on white-collar crime vs street crime (Holtfreter, Van Slyke, Bratton and Gertz 2008) Findings: large proportion of respondents wanted white-collar criminals punished as harshly/more harshly than violent criminals. They wanted greater government resources allocated to combat white-collar crime - A number of acts dealing with various forms of economic crime. e.g. the National White-collar Crime Centre of Canada (NW4C) was incorporated under the Canada Corporations Act – to prevent and respond to economic crime e.g. linking national and international systems through the Reporting Economic Crime Online centre (RECOL) e.g. Phonebusters National Call Centre (PNCC) for private and public sector regulatory and law-enforcement organizations Theft - Economic crime is synonymous with the notion of stealing - The Criminal Code of Canada (section 322) – theft over $5000 is indicable offence with maximum punishment of 10 years imprisonment; theft under $5000 is a hybrid offence that can be treated as an indictable offence (max imprisonment for not more than 2 years) or a less serious summary conviction (max 6 months imprisonment, fine of $2000). - Common type of theft is shoplifting (not a specific criminal offence, simply a theft categorized by the value of the merchandise stolen) Fraud - Fraud is divided into 2 categories (under section 380 of the Criminal Code of Canada): fraud under $5000 and fraud over $5000 - Fraud = occurs when deceit or fraudulent means are used to deprive someone of property, money, valuable security, or services (use deception to take something that does not belong to them) - Many theft can be fraud, up to police’s decision to lay a fraud/theft charge - Identity theft (not illegal currently) = the collection, possession, and trafficking of personal information. Typically takes place independent of/in preparation for the commission of identity fraud. - Identity fraud (illegal) = the use of another’s personal information without their knowledge of consent to commit various crimes (fraud, theft, forgery) - Currently, identity fraud (the misuse of another person’s identity information e.g. impersonation and forgery) is listed as offences under the Criminal Code. But, identity theft is not against the law. Other Types of Fraud - Advance fee fraud (fraud that requires payment before delivery) - Online auction fraud (non-delivery of goods and services, non-payment for goods delivered) - Investment fraud (inside trading) - Counterfeit (currency/payment cards counterfeiting) - Home renovation fraud (real estate fraud) - Health fraud (insurance) - Fraudulent bankruptcy (concealment of assets) - Corruption/bribery (bribery of a public official) Prostitution - Prostitution = providing sexual services in exchange for money - Most common form – female sellers and male buyers - No prostitution law per se in the Criminal Code, but the activities associated with prostitution are illegal: 1. Procuring or living on the avails of prostitution 2. Owning, operating, or occupying a bawdy house 3. All forms of public communication for the purpose of prostitution 4. Knowingly transporting another to a bawdy house - Women are more likely to be penalized than men, although both the prostitute and the buyer are engaging in illegal acts The Male ‘Client’ - Characteristics of men seeking the services of female sex workers: - significantly less likely to subscribe to a feminine sex-role orientation - lower social-sexual effectiveness - higher sensation-seeking behaviours - Motivation to visit sex workers: type1 - low social-sexual effectiveness - desired interpersonal intimacy type2 - high level of sensation seeking - wanted novelty and variety in sexual encounters A profile of the adolescent prostitute - Many children and adolescents who run away from home end up using prostitution as a means for survival - Research on youth prostitution shows that many were abused sexually and physically. Poor family relations, inter-parental violence, parental alcohol abuse, adolescent alcohol and/or drug use and low self-esteem - Adolescent prostitutes were classified as runaways more frequently and used a wider variety of drugs. Human Trafficking - Human trafficking = the recruitment, transportation, or harbouring of persons by means of threat, use of force, or other forms of coercion; abduction, fraud, or deception for the purpose of exploitation - The trafficking of women and adolescents is increasingly recognized as one of the world’s fastest-growing crimes an
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