Textbook Notes (362,755)
Canada (158,052)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 1


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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Psychology of Criminal BehaviorChapter 1 Crime in CanadaINTRODUCTIONThe Influence of the MediaJames Wallaces 2008 story Even inmates eat better than seniors in nursing homesincreased the meal per diem to 546 in senior longterm facilitiesprisoners receive meals worth more than 10 per dayCrime and justice issues receive considerable media scrutiny sensational crimes receive frontpage billing and the public is inundated with facts figures and opinions about what to do about crime and how to increase public safety44 of Canadians believe more money should be spent on the criminal justice systemFIGURE 11 Information Sources Rated as Highly ImportantCurrent ContextPsychology is interested in intraindividual differences and interindividual differencesIntraIndividual Differences variations in criminal conduct within an individual across time and situations InterIndividual Differences variations in criminal conduct between individualspsychology focuses on individuals sociology focuses more on groupsForensic Psychology refers to any application of psychology to the legal systemIn UK psychological study of criminal behavior is referred to as criminological psychologyIn US and Canada the area would be described as correctional psychologyCriminal Behavior Intentional behavior that when detected is sanctioned by the courts as a breach of societys established rulesyounger males are more likely to be involved in criminal behavior and crime decreases with increased ageCrime Desistance The cessation of criminal behavior most often described as process of change rather than an instantaneous eventPsychology attempts to refine our understanding of criminal behavior by considering individual variation in order to account from heterogeneity and provide differentiated assessment and intervention A psychological understanding is derived from recognizing the variability of criminal behavior between individuals as well as within an individual over time and across situationsA prominent psychological depiction of the interplay among factors influencing criminality sometimes referred to as a general personality and social psychology of criminal conduct is the Personal Interpersonal and CommunityReinforcement model This model posits that criminal behavior reflects the immediate situation Cognitive Social Learning Theory of Crime A learning theory of crime that attends to both social and cognitive factors as well as behavior DEFINITION OF CRIMEindividuals motivation opportunity politics social convention and context have been used to define crimetypes of definitions typically include legal moral social and psychological explanations legal refers to acts prohibited by the state that are punishable under the lawmoral refers to the violation of norms of religion and morality that are punishable by supreme beingssocial refers to the violation of certain norms and customs that are punishable by the
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