Textbook Notes (367,969)
Canada (161,538)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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David Nussbaum

Chapter 8Behind Closed Doors Family Violence Susan married her college bf at 21at start w verbal abuse escalated to physical abusebut she partially felt to blamebelieved if she changed her behaviour he would be happystop abuse Introduction Idealfamily a place where someone feel loved securesafe but w some there is abuse fearlack of emotional bonds that can leads to violence The violence can have short or longterm effects some abused children became abusers themselves cycle passes from generation to generation Not unusual that abuse victims blame themselvesoften attempt to change their behaviour in order not to trigger abuse episodes but it usually continueseven escalates Why study family violencesto 1most prevalent forms of violence in society ndo 2distinct form other types of violencevictimsperpetrators know each otherwere often in relationship prior duringafter violent episoderdo 3unlike other violencesome forms of family violence are sanctioned eg physical punishment of children or consider normal eg sibling fightingnot criminal Estimate of magnitude of family violence can vary depending on the sample typeseverity of violence and method of data collectionViolence win the Family Background Issues Family violence FVis any violence occurring bw members of a family Much of history FV had quasilegitimacy due mainly to culturalreligious attitudes that paled women and children in subservient roles win the familyOnly recently have attitudes changedw womens liberation movmntgrowth of feminism led women to questions longstanding acceptance of family violence1980smajor changes took place in Canadian law dealing w family violencebecame research area Defining FV is controversialhow is defied has impact on reported ratesno consensus exists for a definition o Current definition include nonviolent abuse eg emotional or financial abuseDifferential rates of abuse can be result of diff in who is sampledwhat is counted oeg some child abuse studies record theof cases reported vs others only include allegations substantiated by investigations Looking at frequency of violenceimpt to clarify the distinction bw prevalenceincidence Prevalencetotalof people who have experienced violence in specific time period Incidence theof new cases identified reported at a given point in timeusually one year Most research focus on specific type of FVbut there is evidence of overlap in the risk factorscauses of diff forms o research needed to integrate diff theories understand impact of multiple forms of violence on victimsfocus on prevention of all forms of violenceTypes of Violence some forms of abuse more common than others eg neglect is most common form of abuse in childrenelderspsychological abuse often described by individual as one of the most hurtful types of abuse financial abusemost often studied for elder abuse but can occur win intimate relationships Ecological Model of Family Violence Ecological Modelprovide useful way to conceptualize the interaction among actors related to violence in intimate relationships child abuseelder abuse Focus on relationship bw multiple levels of influence in understanding FVincluding individual relationshipcommunitysociety factors Individual levelbiologicalpersonal history characteristics of abusesvictim Relationship levelpersons closet social circle of peers partnersfamily members may contribute increased risk Impt factors include level of stress or exposure to violence Community levelincorporates places eg schoolneighbourhoods that are associated w becoming victim or perpetrator of FVfactors eg poverty social isolationcommunity disorganizationSocietal levelinclude broad societal factors in which violence is supported or discouraged including social norms cultural beliefs police and government policies Intimate Partner Violence Intimate partner violence Spousal violenceoccurs bw intimate partners who live together or separated Vary in typeseverityphysical hitting sexualfinancial restricting access to personal fundsemotional abuse unwarranted accusation about infidelity isolation from family membersIntimate Partners A Potential for Risk51 women report at least 1 incident of physical or sexual violence since age 16 at 1993 survey 2004modified Conflict Tactics Scaled it measured psychological physicalsexual violence in intimate relationshipso 2 menwomen experienced physical andor sexual assault in past yrs 7 female6 maleexperienced physical andor sexual assault in past 5 yrso Butwomen experienced more severe forms of violence egchockedmore likely to report to police 36vs violence against men 17 Violence against women occur at all sociodemographicrecent studyhigher rates of abuse in Ontario public housing than 2004 survey o eg 19 reported physical assault in past year 8X more than survey
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