Textbook Notes (368,117)
Canada (161,660)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 3


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David Naussbaum

Basic Psychadynamic • According to this prespective, crime generally occurs when when these (often unconicous) impulses are not controlled properly • Additionally humans are thought to be inherently antisocial, driven by pleasure seeking prinicial • DavidAbrahamsen-well known foresenic psychiatrist: said that most murders were deemly tormented with internaal conflicts stemming from bad childhood • ID-guided by pleasure principle • EGO-guided by reality principle, conincdes with the development of reality oriented thinking, suppressing ID's impulses until approriate situations • Superego- last one to develop. It represents the internalization of group standards, typically conveyed to children through parental care and discipline.It acts a moral regulator. It consists of two systems: 1) Conciousness-Allows an individual to distiniguish between right and wrong and forces the ego to ibhibit ID pursuits that are out of line with one's morals 2) Ego Ideal represents socially accepted standards to which we all aspire • look at freud;s 5 psychosexual stages pg 72 • Anall rentive personality: person was unable to resolve conflicts in the anal stage of development • Pychiatrists have proposed that criminal behaviour stems with supeego fomation(3) types: • Weak superego formation, harsh and deviant • Harsh superego: This is known as the neurotic criminal. They are full of guilt and only commit crimes to punish themselves • Weak: The superego developed not properly, cannot subdue ID. This people are known as psychopaths. They are guiltless, egocentric • Deviant: Superego develops properly, but indentifies with a bad rolemodel Pyschodynamic theories of crime: • Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation: • Deliquents have maternal deprivation • There was one study that did that proved his results • his studies have been critized for unrepresentative sample to poor control group matching • Large studies don't seem to prove his results • Bowbly himself doenst always find strong evidence for his own theory • What is now clear that maternal deprivation is not a critical factor Unravelling Juvenille Delinquency: The work of Glueck and Glueck • Glueck matched deliquent boys to non on age, race, ses, etc • Conducted a cross-sectional study • also interviewed parents,etc..it was a longitudinal study • Attributed most of the differences to parenting factors, the primary source for superego development. Gluecks findings clearly indicated a marked difference between these groups accross a range of parenting variables • Amonng delqient parents(also grandp,siblings) there was more criminality, alcoholism, mental retarded,alcoholism • Parents were more careless, often appeared neglectful • Also lack warmth, cohesivenss, respect for intergrity members.fewer of the delinquents were affectionately attached to parents especially for fathers • Believed that could predict based on a formula who woulc become involved in delinquency(this claims were met with resistence) • Critism: • Ignored the base rate of delinquency in the general population • didnt carefully examine casual ordering • inapproriate statistical techniques/procedures • Ommited social class • Ommited some other variables such as inteactions with antisocial peers, misconduct in school Hirschi • Theories incorporate superego/ego type mechanism • Social control theory: The reason why people dont commit crime is because social controls, the bond of individual to society • 4 social bonds that will lead to conformity: attachment,commitment,involvement, and belief • Attachment: attachment to human beings leads someone not to commit crimes in order not to jepordize your relationship. This manifest in ego-ideal level • Commitment: refers to the time, energy and effort placed in convential behaviour(getting a job, etc). You don't crime to jeoperdize this. Ego level • Involvement: involvement in community activities limits your time • Belief: belief that you should not do crime. Superego • Belived that peers had no affect...but was wrong • Causual ordering is a critism..... deqluent behaviour can be before weak bonds • Some bonds are important than others..bonds may be more important to others depending on age... also may very across genders • Hirschi reformatted his idea,(genral theroy of crime) believed that crime happend due a lack of self control + oppounity for crime • Lack of self control- came from bad parenting. Parents dont discipline the child properly • Without this: children are impuslive,insensitive, physica, risk taking, short sighted and nonverbal • Also states that other forms of socialization such as school occur too late to influenc self control • This theory is well supported, seems to be supported accross cultures, only account for 19% of crime, given that it only accounted for approximately 19 percent of the variance in criminal behaviour • Study also verified that maternal attachment realted to self con
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