Textbook Notes (363,559)
Canada (158,426)
Psychology (9,578)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 6

chapter 6 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

PSYC39 Chap 6: Child Victims and Witnesses History Four factors that led to the renewed interest in child witnesses o Expert psychological testimony was becoming more acceptable o More interest in research that could be applied to real life problems o Studies on adult eyewitness testimony increasing o Interest in behavioural science research regarding child witnesses Recall for events Research suggests that the accuracy of childrens reporting is highly dependent on how they are asked to report Free recall vs. directed questioning When children are asked to report all they can remember, using a free narrative approach, their accuracy in reporting is comparable with adults When children are asked leading, direct questions, more likely to produce erroneous response than nonleading, direct questions Older children and adults are more resistant to leading questions than younger children Direct questions require yesno response or use a forced-choice format o Preschoolers show bias towards saying yes to saying no in forced yesno response o No demonstration of bias for multiple-choice questions Why are children more suggestible than adults? 2 directions have been taken to understand childrens greater propensity towards suggestibility o 1 focus: Social compliance Children may respond to suggestive influences because they trust and want to cooperate with adult interviewers o 2 focus: Changes to cognitive system Research found developmental differences in the ways children and adults encode, store and retrieve memories Differences found in terms of forgetting and retention Children misattribute where the info came from (they may report an event as actually experienced rather than something they actually heard from somewhere else) Researchers believe that an interaction of social and cognitive factors is likely responsible to explain childrens suggestibility Interviewers need to balance asking direct questions with the risk of obtaining false info Anatomically detailed dolls When interviewing children suspected of being sexually abused, some professional introduce anatomically detailed dolls o Anatomically detailed dolls: a doll, sometimes a rag doll, that is consistent with the male or female anatomy The assumption underlying the use of these dolls is that children may have difficulty verbalizing what occurred and in their play with dolls they will demonstrate the events they experienced Theirry, Lamb, Orbach and Pipe www.notesolution.com
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