Textbook Notes (362,815)
Canada (158,059)
Psychology (9,546)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 -- Risk Assessment

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Chapter 12- risk ssessment Learning objectives 1. Define the components of risk assessment 2. List what role risk assessment play in Canada 3. Describe the types of correct and incorrect risk predictions 4. Differentiate among static, stable and acute dynamic risk factors 5. Describe unstructured clinical judgements, actuarial prediction and structured professional judgement 6. List the four major types of risk factors Introduction: Predicting future violence has been described as one of the most complex and controversial issues in behavioural science and law Bonta 2002; concludes that risk assessment is a double edged sword- it can be used to justify the application of severe sanctions or to moderate extreme penalties We are NOT at a point of a prediction free of error BUT systematic risk assessment provides judicial decision makers with much needed information to help them make their decisions Goal of chapter= understanding the task of assessing risk and predicting violence WHAT IS RISK ASSESSMENT? Prior to 1990s risk was seen as a dichotomy- were dangerous or not Now risk is seen as a range- person can vary in degree to which she is considered dangerous This shift has added dimension of probability (of whether a person will commit violence) Probability has 2 considerations o Time- Highlights idea that probability changes over time- function of time www.notesolution.com o Situational and personal characteristics- Recognizes that risk level reflects an interaction among a persons characteristics, background and future situations that will affect their engaging in violent acts Process of risk assessment includes both a prediction and management compondent o Prediction component= describes the probability that an individual will commit future criminal or violent acts Focus is to identify risk factors associated with the likelihood of future violence o Management component= describes the development of interventions to manage or reduce the likelihood of future violence Focus is to see what conditions need to be implemented to manage the individuals risk Hart 1998- the critical function of risk assessments is violence prevention not violence prediction RISK ASSESSMENTS: WHEN ARE THEY CONDUCTED? Risk assessments (RA) are conducted in civial and criminal contexts o Civial context= private rights of individuals and the legal proceedings connected to such rights o Criminal context = situations in which someone has been charged with a crime Civil; 5 civial contexts that require risk assessment 1. Civil commitment; a person has to be hospitalized involuntarily if she has a mental illness which poses a danger to himherself and others 2. Child protection; assessment of risk in child protection involves laws that arein place to protect children from abuse 3. Immigration; prohibit the admission of individuals into Canada if there is a reasonable belief that they will engage in violent acts 4. Duty to warn and Limits of confidentiality a. Examples; W v. Egdell- patient confined to psychiatric facility www.notesolution.com
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