Textbook Notes (368,430)
Canada (161,877)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 1-4&6

PSYC39 CHAPS 1-4 & 6

23 Pages
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David Nussbaum

CHAPTER 1: CRIME IN CANADA Typical Offender Profile - Bill Jones, aged 28 - Serving 36 month sentence for armed robbery - High school dropout, had a fairly a chaotic childhood and family situation - Long history of alcohol and drug abuse Sensational Case Profile - In 191, Bernardo kidnapped, raped, and murdered 14 year old Leslie Mahaffy w/ girlfriend Homolka - In 1992, the couple did the same thing to Kristen French - The couple were called Ken and Barbie murderers by the press - Homolka later testified against Bernardo in the killing of her younger sister INTRODUCTION - Analysis of sensational cases does not inform us about the most prevalent types of crime, nor the motivations underlying ordinary criminal behaviour - Understanding criminal behaviour from a single source such as the newspaper may limit our knowledge of the complex phenomenon of criminality The Influence of the Media - James Wallace inmates eat better than seniors in nursing homes - Researchers surveyed more than 4500 Canadians by telephone regarding their perceptions of crime o Govt information had moderate influence, academic contributions had zero influence, TV had most influence Culture Context - Psychology interested in intra-individual differences as well as inter-individual differences - Intra-Individual differences: differences in criminal behaviour over time and across situations for the same individual - Inter-individual differences: differences in criminal behaviour between individuals - Forensic psychology refers to any application of psych to the legal system - Forensic psychology: application of psychology to the legal system, intended to guide legal decision making - Correctional psychologists conduct crisis management and individual and group psychotherapy with general population inmates as well as with offenders with mental disorders and substance abuse problems - Younger males more likely to be involved in criminal behaviour - Criminal behaviour: intentional behaviour that, when detected, is sanctioned by the courts as a breach of societys established rules - Crime decreases as age increases - As many as 70% of offenders follow some approximation of the age-crime curve, with only a small percentage maintaining criminal activity well into adulthood - Phenomena of decreased criminal activity is a process referred to as crime desistance - Crime desistance: the cessation of criminal behaviour, most often described as a process of change rather than an instantaneous event Personal, Interpersonal, and Community-Reinforcement Model - This model posits that criminal behaviour reflects the immediate situation and that factors combine to influence a decision to engage in criminal behaviour - PIC-R reflects a learning theory of crime that attends to social and cognitive factors as well as behaviour, underscoring it as a contemporary cognitive social learning theory of crime - Cognitive social learning theory: a learning theory of crime that attends to both social and cognitive factors as well as behaviour DEFINITION OF CRIME - McGuire describes variety of factors that have been used to define crime and in part explain when certain behaviours may be viewed as criminal - These include an individuals motivation, opportunity, politics, social convention, and context - Newman surveyed ppl in 6 countries and found there was a high degree of agreement in respondents perceptions of what is considered a crime o Robbery, theft, incest DETERMINANTS OF CRIME First and Second Order Correlates of Criminal Conduct - Work by Andrews et al. ranks variables purported to be related to criminality and identifies the central eight risk/need factors - Central eight: the eight most strongly identified risk factors, as identified thru meta-analysis o History of antisocial behaviour, antisocial personality pattern, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, family/marital probs, school/work probs, leisure/recreation probs, substance abuse - Within this group are the big four - Big four: the four most strongly identified risk factors, as identified thru meta-analysis o History of antisocial behaviour, antisocial personality pattern, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates - Minor risk factors: risk factors with very weak association with criminal behaviour o Low IQ, social class of origin, mental disorder, health issues, distress - Moderate risk factors: risk factors with moderate association with criminal behaviour; less strong than the big four o Family/marital probs, school/work probs, leisure/recreation probs, substance abuse - Moderate risk factors are those that are part of the Central Eight but are not major correlates - Some risk factors are static, meaning they cannot change, whereas others can change and are therefore referred to as dynamic risk factors - Static risk factors: risk factors with a demonstrated correlation with criminal behaviour, but which cannot change over time or with intervention - Dynamic risk factors: risk factors that can change, unlike stat risk factors, with such change related to reduced criminal behaviour - If goal is to reduce criminal behaviour, then assessment and treatment must attend to those factors that are most highly correlated with criminal conduct - Major risk factors are often termed criminogenic in that they are empirically related to criminal conduct and, when reduced, lead to reduction in future re-offending - Criminogenic needs typically inform treatment referrals - Criminogenic needs: changeable risk factors that, when reduced, result in reduced criminal behaviour. Sometimes referred to as dynamic risk factors Impact of Risk and Need Model of Criminal Conduct - Most use variants of either the Wisconsin model or the Level of Service Inventory - Adult assessments in provincial corrections also reflect the LSI-R - Provincial corrections: jail and probation services for youth and adults, the latter who receive sentences of less than 2 years - The Correctional Service of Canada uses the Offender Intake Assessment based on the Wisconsin model o Rename and refined as Dynamic Factor Identification Analysis - Correctional Service of Canada: integrated prison and community correctional system responsible for supervising offenders who receives sentences of two years or greater - Assessments are intended to assist in the identification of levels of criminal risk for decision purposes, specific treatment, targets, and treatment planning Role of Substance Abuse - Substance abuse is a moderate risk factor - For federal offenders, 52.1% report regular drug use, 62.7% report regular alcohol use - 50% of federal offenders report using drugs or alcohol prior to or during the commission of their crimes - McMurran Does alcohol cause crime directly thru diminished inhibitory control or impaired cognitive function? Answer is unclear LINKING THE RESEARCH TO CASE STUDIES Federal and Provincial Corrections - More data pertaining to federal corrections is available than provincial corrections - Federal corrections: the term used to describe correctional agencies for offenders serving two years or more. Includes prisons and parole offices in every region of the country - Offenders serving less than 2 years are under provincial jurisdiction - Offenders serving more than 2 years are responsibility of federal govt - If federal offenders on supervised release commit new crimes and receive sentence of less than 2 years, they still go to federal prison - CSC is the largest single employer of psychologists in Canada CRIME TRENDS - Police report crime rates from 83-07 show a general decline since 91 - For both youth and adult crime, violent crime is less prevalent than property crimes - Administration of justice charges, impaired driving, weapons charges are more common for adults - Break and enter, robbery, sexual assault more common among youth Crime Severity Index - Measures police-reported crime in Canada - Crime rate is a count of all criminal incidents reported by and to police, divided by the population of interest - Specific weight for any given type of offence consists of 2 parts: o Incarceration rate for that offence type o Avg length of prison sentence given, in days, for the specific type of offence Crime Victimization - Females 20-44 y.o. likely to be victims - Male victims of violent crimes tended to be younger - 48% of Canadians reported being a victim of 1 of 5 offence types: o Car theft, bike theft, burglary, attempted burglary, theft of personal property - In 03, crime in Canada cost 60 billion dollars Public Perceptions of the Criminal Justice System - 57.8% of Canadians believe crime rate has gone up - 6.5% indicated that their neighbourhoods were less safe - Least confidence in police preventing crime, courts imposing appropriate sentences, rehabilitating offenders, supervising offenders on parole Variation in Crime by Source - Police-reported crime is lower than victimization rates Length of Sen
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