Textbook Notes (363,078)
Canada (158,177)
Psychology (9,565)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Risk Assessment The goal of this chapter is to explore the major issues associated with risk predications a forensic context. In particular, the focus will be on understanding the take of assessing risk and predicting violence What is Risk Assessment? The process of risk assessment includes both a prediction and management component o Prediction component describes the probability that an individual will commit future criminal violent acts The focus of this component is on identifying the risk factors that are related to the likelihood of future violence o Management component describes the development of intervention to manage or reduce the likelihood of future violence The focus of this component is on identifying what treatments might reduce the individual level of risk or what conditions need to implemented to managed the individuals risk Risk Assessment: When are they Conducted? Risk assessment are routinely conducted in the civil and criminal contexts o Civil contexts refer to the private rights of individuals and legal proceedings connected with such rights o Criminal contexts refer to situations in which an individual has been charged with a crime Common for both contexts is the need for information that would enable legal judgements to be made concerning the probability of individuals committing some kind of act Civil Setting A number of civil contexts require risk assessment: 1). Civil commitment requires an individual to be hospitalized involuntarily if he or she has a mental illness and poses a danger to himself or herself or others o A mental health worker (Psychiatrist or psychologist) , would need to know the probability of violence associated with various mental disorders and be able to identify whether the circumstances associated with individual patients would affect the likelihood www.notesolution.com that they would harm others or themselves 2). Assessment of risk in Child protection context involves the laws that are in place to protect children from abuse o The risk of physical or sexual abuse or neglect is considered when a government protect agency, such as Childrens Aid Society, decides whether to temporarily remove a child or to terminate paternal rights 3).Immigrants law prohibit the admission of individuals into Canada if there are reasonable grounds to believe they will engage in acts of violence 4).School and labour regulations also provide provisions to prevent any kind of act that would endanger others 5).Other civil contexts include duty to warn and limits of confidentiality The Canadian Psychological Associations Code of Ethics for Psychologists includes a guide to help psychologists decide the most ethical action for any potential dilemma; this guide is closely connected to ethical theory, but lacks empirical support Criminal Settings The assessment of risk occurs at nearly every major decisions point in the criminal justice and forensic psychiatric systems, including pre-trial, sentencing, and release A person can be denied bail if there is a substantial likelihood that he or she will commit another criminal offence o In the case of adolescent offenders should only be committed to secure custody if they are considered at high risk if placed in open custody, or if they were to serve a probation term in the community The risk assessment in criminal settings is the disclosure of information about potential risk Solicitor-client privilege is fundamental to criminal proceedings- for lawyers to adequately represent their clients, they must be able to freely discuss the case with clients Case Study: o Smith v. Jonas (1999) involved a psychiatrist who was hired to aid defence lawyer in preparing a case- the client was a man accused of aggravated sexual assault on a prostitute. The accused told the psychiatrist of his plans to kidnap, sexually assault and kill prostitutes. The psychiatrist told the defence lawyer about his concerns that the accused was likely to commit future client offences unless he received treatment. When the psychiatrist found out that the defence lawyer was not going to address his concerns at www.notesolution.com
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