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Psychology (9,573)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 2

PSYC39 Chapter 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Chapter 2:  Theories explain a certain phenomenon – in this course (looking @ theories to explain antisocial beh)  Strong theory = following components: o 1) parsimonious o 2) clearly identifies:  Causal mechanisms  Mediators/moderators o 3) testable, therefore falsifiable via hypotheses/predictions o 4) based on empirical data, modified with new data o 5) posses interdisciplinary compatibility o 6) respects gender, ethnicity, culture  Gall = phrenology, shape/size of head determines personality, behavior  Lombroso = used phrenology to compare criminals o Father of criminology o Sloping foreheads, twisted lips  atavisms  criminals = evolutionary throwbacks BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS:  Genetics and Crime: o Twins  99% of human genetics that are the same; 1% can vary; but this 1% is the same for MZ twins  Attribute to genetics if concordance 4 MZ > concordance for DZ  Concordance is converted into heritability coefficient of sample/population  Overall findings – antisocial beh attributed to:  Heritability = 0.41  Shared enviro = 0.16  Non-shared enviro = 0.43 o Adoption  Parent-offspring  Sibling-offspring  Cross fostering paradigm o Molecular Genetics  Interaction btn specific gene + well-known risk factor  Ex) interaction btn low-activity version of MAO-A gene and childhood maltreatment  Low-activtiy version of MAO-A gene = warrior gene  Found on X-chromosome  Only expresses itself in the presence of certain evniro: o Childhood abuse o provocation  Neurochemistry and Crime: o Hormones  Testosterone + aggression in humans = +ve but weak correlation = 0.14  Moderated by: o Age o Time of day reading was taken – lowest in morning  Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) = DSM IV = less than 5% of menstruating women o NTs  Involved in info processing, mood regulation, communication  5HT  Behavioral inhibitions  Mood regulation  Precursor AA = tryptophan = obtain thru diet  Malfunction in 5HT system = impulsive, irritable, aggressive  DOPAMINE  Pleasure  Triggered arficially by drugs, alcohol, nicotine  aggression  Not sure if too high or too low dopamine = responsible for anti-social tendencies  NOREPI  Allows one to react to short-term stress  Increases HR & BP – increase aggression  Reserpine = decrease norepi = decrease aggression  Psychophysiology and Crime: o Measures of autonomic response – related to various measures of antisocial spectrum:  Heart rate  Electrodermal activity (EDA)/galvanic skin response/skin conductance o Gray’s arousal model  Personality, learning, motivation & emotional response governed by 2 underlying biological system of autonomic aroundal  BIS (anxiety)  BAS (approach/reward-seeking): impulsivity/sensation-seeking  Study:  Measured HR/EDA in one of 3 paradigms o HR = medium-sized correlate of anti-social beh in kids o EDA = very related to psychopathy, esp with negative stimuli  Brain and Crime: o Neuroimaging  Damage to area involved in moral reasoning/emotion reg’n  anti-social tendencies  Structural:  MRI  CT  Functional:  SPECT  PET o Neuropsychology
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