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PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 3

PSYC39 Chapter 3.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Chapter 3: Theories of Crime – Learning and Enviro  LEARNING AND ENVIRO theories focus on: o 1) lack of parental supervision o 2) procriminal role models o 3) +ve reinforcement from friends  Theory Perspectives: o 1) PSYCHODYNAMIC  Freud:  Theories of unconscious mind  Defence mechanisms  Therapeutic techniques: o Free association o Dream interpretations  Personality = development of 5 psychosexual stages: o 1) oral o 2) anal o 3) phallic o 4) latent o 5) genital  ID = unconscious, primitive instincts = pleasure principle  EGO = reality principle  SUPEREGO = internalize group standards o Conscience o Ego-ideal  Criminal beh = inadequate super-ego formation o 1) harsh superego  neurotic criminal o 2) weak superego  psychopathic criminal o 3) deviant superego  superego standards developed BUT those standards reflect deviant identification- identify with deviant role model  Humans are inherently anti-social, pleasure-seeking, destructive impulsive  Abrahemsen  crime = psychodynamic  Set of psychic structures that develops thru childhood & adolescence  forms dynamic personality systems  Theories:  1) Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation o Popular for how juvenile delinquency develops o Disruption of mom-child relation = inability to establish meaningful relations  2) Gluek & Gluek unravelling juvenile delinquency o Did cross-sectional research = compared lives of juvie delinquents to non-delinquents o Multi-disciplinary approach; also longitudinal o Delinquent = mesomorphic (strong/muscular), energetic, restless, uninhibited expression o Attribute to parenting factors o Said they could predict who would become delinquent BUT failed to take into account base rate of delinquency and temporal order of events (causation not supported)  3) Hirschi’s Ctrl Theory aka social control theory aka social bond theory o General theory of crime = self-control o Wondered why more ppl DON’T violate the law o Superego/ego mechanism = control impulses o 4 types of social bonds to promote socialization & conformity:  1) attachment (rep ego-ideal  2) commitment (rep ego)  3) involvement  4) belief (rep super-ego conscience)  4) Hirshi and Gottfredson o More refined, parsimonious general control theory o Instead of focusing on the indirect controlling effects of social bonds as in the original; this general theory of crime proposes that self-control is internalized early in life = primary determinant of crime o Opportunity to commit crime is also impt o Low self-ctrl in the presence of criminal opportunities  prevalence for crime & other analogous anti-soc beh  Short-lived, immediate gratification, easy, simply, satisfying o Self-ctrl depends on quality of parenting  Monitoring & recogniztion of deviant beh + punishment o Self-ctrl = only 19% of variance in crime o Social learning variables are ALSO impt predictors of crime = these social learning variables were not considered in learning theories of crime o Parental efficacy = mother’s attachment to child = significant predictor of youth’s self-control o Criticism for this self-control theory presented by Akers  this theory is tau
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