Textbook Notes (368,164)
Canada (161,688)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 6

CHAPTER 6 .docx

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David Nussbaum

CHAPTER 6 – Economic Crime INTRODUCTION - Canada viewed as “soft” on white collar crime - Focus on crime w/ primary goal of financial profit - Violence may not occur (usually occur if financial gain is in jeopardy) Definition - economic crime: criminal offences where primary motivation is for economic gain - to combat this crime=partnership must be formed across various lvls of government, law enforcement, business, and private sectors  reporting economic crime online (RECOL): royal Canadian mounted police (RCMP), Ontario provincial police (OPP), and internet fraud complaint centre (IFCC) TYPES OF ECONOMIC CRIME White-Collar Crime - partitioned into:  occupational crimes: offences committed against businesses and government by perpetrators w/ a “higher” social status (focused on individuals)  corporate crimes: offences committed by organizations to advance their own interests –include price fixing and payment of kickbacks to manufacturers or retailers (focused on organizations) - criminals tend to work for institution they are stealing from - corporate crime cause far greater financial harm and personal injury Profiling the Typical Offender of White-Collar Crime - historically, viewed as high status and respectable, often male, highly educated, and in upper management position - occupational fraudsters thought to be primarily middle class - Holtfreter –common characteristics of  white, male, approx. 40yrs old  education: tend to have greater educational attainment compared to other type of offenders  position: often have knowledge and be involved in financial aspects of organization=facilitate occupational crime  male offenders out# female offenders (also for most crimes) - Holtfreter –common characteristics of victims of organizational crime  organizational type: positive association between size and lvl of bureaucracy of organization and willingness to approve of stealing from that organization  organizational size: larger organizations associated w/ greater crime than smaller organizations  internal controls: organization that have greater internal controls (i.e. audits and anonymous reporting systems)=less likely to be victimized; also result in dismissal of guilty employees=less victimization - holtfreter study  three types of occupational fraud assessed 1. asset misappropriation: middle-class, large profit-generating corporations 2. corruption: middle-class, smaller organizations 3. fraudulent statements: high status, primarily made in small organizations - survey of 76 prisoners convicting white-collar crime in Germany  white-collar: more hedonistic, greater likelihood of giving into temptation when had opportunity to make money illegally, more conscientious (assuming needed to obtain education and training to get high- status job), lower integrity than non-criminals - 52% Canadian companies surveyed had been victims of economic crime - U.S. department of justice –loss is greater but white-collar crime=low priority (vs. violent crime & issues regarding national security) Punishing White-Collar Criminals - responses from 402 U.S. citizens large proportion=punished as/more harshly than violent criminals, want greater resources allocated  contradictory to earlier research (possible cuz of recent media attention) Theft - generally synonymous w/ notion of stealing; criminal code of Canada (section 322): “every one commits theft who fraudulently & w/out colour of right takes, or fraudulently & w/out colour of right converts to his use or to the use of another person, anything, whether animate or inanimate, with intent” - demarcation at $5000 when deciding punishment  over=indictable offence w/ max punishment of 10 yrs imprisonment  under=considered hybrid offence; decision made by Crown’s office o indictable offence: max penalty=imprisonment for no more than 2yrs o less serious summary conviction: max penalty=6 months imprisonment, fine of $2000, or both - common type is shoplifting –categorized by value of merchandise stolen (Canadian criminal code)= low- and high-value items Fraud - divided into two categories: under and over $5000; occurs when deceit/fraudulent means used to deprive someone of property, money, valuable security, or services (some theft can be fraud, up to police to decide charge)  example of theft or fraud: changing price tag on an item –theft but police may choose it as fraud (price paid was illegitimate, used deception to take something) - identity theft: collection, possession, and trafficking of personal info - identity fraud: use of another’s personal info w/out their knowledge or consent to commit various crimes (fraud, theft, or forgery) - criminal code lists misuse of another person’s identity info as an offence (impersonation and forgery)  but collection, possession, and trafficking of identity info isn’t against the law (working on fixing this) Other Types of Fraud - advance fee fraud: requires payment before delivery of service - online auction fraud: through online purchasing - investment fraud: w/ investments impacting a person or company - counterfeit: associated w/ counterfeit currency or payment cards - home renovation fraud: associated w/ home and property renovation services or sale - health fraud: associated w/ health care or services, including insurance - corruption/bribery: misuse of power and position by public or non-government official PROSTITUTION - providing sexual services in exchange (buyer and seller) for money - no prostitution law per se in criminal code, but activities associated are illegal; four activities considered 1. procuring/living on avails of prostitution 2. owning, operating, or occupying bawdy house (i.e., brothel) 3. forms of public comm. For purpose of prostitution 4. knowingly transporting other to bawdy house - occur in brothels or on the street (street in Canada is smallest proportion of sex trade)  brothels more prominent through 1800s (find alcohol and gambling)  more employment following WWII=less involved - both prostitute/seller and buyer engaging in illegal acts –women more likely penalized than men The Male “Client” - study of clients vs. non-clients  all similar in age, education, marital status, and occupation  clients: significantly less likely to subscribe to feminine sex-role orientation, lower social sexual effectiveness, and higher sensation-seeking behaviours  motivation of clients partitioned into two separate groups o low social-sexual effectiveness, seemed motivated to visit sex workers cuz desired interpersonal intimacy o high lvl of sensation seeking, seemed motivated to visit cuz wanted novelty and variety in sexual encounters A Profile of the Adolescent Prostitute - many who run away from home end up using prostitution for means of survival - research suggests: many abused sexually and physically; homes often plagued w/ poor family relations, inter-parental violence, parental alcohol abuse, adolescent alcohol and/or drug use, and low self-esteem Human Trafficking - recruitment, transportation, or harbouring of persons by means of threat, use of force, or other forms of coercion; abduction, fraud, or deception for purpose of exploitation - frequently lured by individuals known to them or families promising different job (waitress, nannies, or cleaners) - increasingly recognized as one of world’s fastest-growing crimes, significant violation of human rights - Bill C-49 (p.184-185): created three new indictable criminal offences to specifically address trafficking in persons:  section 279.01 –prohibits recruiting & exercising control over movements of person for exploitation of that person; max penalty: life in prison  section 279.02 –prohibits receiving financial or material benefit from this; max penalty: 10 yrs  section 279.03 –prohbits withholding or destruction of documents of victim’s travel documents or identity for trafficking purpose; max penalty: 5 yrs - changes in criminal code allow for sex tourism: Canadians who go to other countries to seek child prostitution The Effects on Human Trafficked Women - survey of 192 women, range age from 15-45  all sexually exploited  almost all (95%) sexually and/or physically abused  personal freedoms restricted  most common symptoms: gynaecological infections, pelvic pain, stomach pain, memory problems, back pain, dizzy spells, feeling easily tired, headaches  depression often reported, 39% reported suicidal thoughts Treatment/Support for Sex-Trade Workers - prostitutes empowerment education and resource society (PEERS); based on four principles 1. choice: support those who want to get out or stay 2. capacity building: recognize strength of sex workers; employee therapy, counseling, and chemical dependency treatment 3. harm reduction: variety of programs for ppl actively in addiction and working regularly in trade 4. trust: sex-trade workers design and deliver own services The Drug Trade - generally operated by organized crime groups, generates greater profit than other trafficked commodity - deliver drug on individual lvl - analysis of 1715 adult drug traffickers caught smuggling drugs in an airport –majority were male (72%), and most common method of smuggling in luggage (32%) - street value used for estimating revenue potential of drugs seized by law-enforcement agencies  Canada 2006 –estimated $2.3 billion - money generated typically laundered –money laundering: pro
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