Textbook Notes (369,067)
Canada (162,366)
Psychology (9,699)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1.docx

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC39H3
Professor
David Nussbaum

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CHAPTER 1 – Crime in Canada Introduction The Influence of the Media - figure 1.1, p.4 indicates importance of media for Canadians (government having moderate influence and academic contributions have none) - crime and criminal justice issues receive considerable media scrutiny Current Context - focus on greater understanding of criminal behaviour from psychological explanations that consider individual differences - psychology interested in  intra-individual differences: variations in criminal conduct w/in an individual across time and situations  inter-individual differences: variations in criminal conduct between individuals (greatest interest in sociologists – psychology: individual, sociology: groups) - preferred term for study of criminal behaviour is correctional psychology (Canada & US), other terms:  criminological psychology (united kingdom)  forensic psychology: any application of psychology to legal system  practice of clinical psychology w/in legal system (more reflects issues of risk assessment and expert testimony, psychologists activities in court, guiding legal decision making - sociological explanations provide insight into groups of individuals  younger males more likely involved in criminal behaviour  crime decreases w/ age - offenders comprise particularly heterogeneous group - crime desistance: phenomenon of decreased criminal activity –about 70% of offenders follow some approximation of age-crime curve (small % maintain it well into adulthood) - prominent psychological depiction of interplay among factors influencing criminality personal, interpersonal and community-reinforcement model: criminal behaviour reflects “immediate situation” in that factors combine to influence a decision to engage in criminal behaviour  decision influenced by attitudes supportive of crime, history of criminal behaviour, balance of costs and rewards, and presence of social supports of crime  highlights contributions of community, interpersonal, personal, and consequences  contemporary cognitive social learning theory of crime  similar to contemporary criminological viewpoints: long-term risk factors interact w/ short-term ones=influence antisocial behaviour Definition of Crime - variation in rates of crime and incarceration=differences in definitions and/or tolerance  McGuire individual’s motivation, opportunity, politics, social convention, and context  Muncie 11 separate defintions: legal, moral, social, and psychological explanations - early research consistency across countries regarding what’s viewed as criminal  high degree of agreement: particularly robbery, theft, and incest - purposes of the text, definition is: Bartol & Bartol criminal behaviour refers to intentional behaviour that violates a criminal cold - definition of crime  critical, influences prevalence  concede that there are inter-cultural variations for normative and acceptable behaviour, can change over time w/in a culture  immigrants norm may not be consistent w/ norm in newly adopted home  sensitive to both legal and cultural issues must be reflected in psychological responses to criminal behaviour Determinants of Crime - as noted in PIC-R Model distal and proximal - literature reviews helpful understanding key issues w/in a field, more useful to empirically identify determinants is through meta-analysis: less biasedprovide quantitative estimate of importance of results rather than narrative interpretation by author (reviewing studies and aggregating findings in terms of effect size) First and Second Order Correlates of Criminal Conduct - table 1.1, p.11  central eight risk/need factors: most important in understanding criminal behaviour  big four: major causal variables in analysis of criminal behaviour of individuals  minor risk factors: previously considered important correlates of crime in sociological theory but proved relatively unimportant in meta-analyses (second order)  major risk factrs: considered first order correlates of crime  moderate risk factors: those that are part of central eight but aren’t major correlates  some risk factors (antisocial history, seriousness of current offence) are static: cannot change  some risk factors (antisocial cognition, substance abuse) are dynamic: can change - table 1.2, p.12 central eight (reflected in PIC-R) yielded more robust correlations between purported risk factors and some measure of behaviour  more robust co-variation=variables w/in cognitive social learning theory of crime=assessments and treatments attend tot hose factors - table 1.3, p.13two key points  eight independent meta-analyses yielded consistent findings for relative importance of risk factors  confidence interval for minor risk factors includes 0.00=on average no relationship between predictor variables and criminal behaviour - table 1.2 & 1.3=strong empirical support for cognitive social learning model  major risk factors=criminogenic: empirically related to criminal conduct, when reduced=reductions in future re-offending  criminogenic needs: inform treatment referrals Impact of Risk and Need Model of Criminal Conduct - all provinces use some form of risk and need assessment modelled after major risk factors (except Quebec)  most use variants of Wisconsin model or Level of Service I
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