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Canada (161,663)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC56H3 (8)
Chapter 6

chapter 6

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Mark Schmuckler

Chapter 6Music and EmotionEmotion Worky Futuna Polynesian island Tuamotus people use music to stimulate and express emotion in both performers and listeners includes laments that express grief love songs that express longing and passion creation chants that express religious exaltationy Basongye ppl Congo asked y make music out of happiness or induce feelings of joy o Musician always experience joy bc act of performance necessarily implicates that emotion also believe can induce range of other emotions in nonprofessional listener o Funeral song can induce sadness in listener even when played out of context o Hindustani music India tones organized into ragas analogous to mode of Western music major and minor Each raga may be represented with divine or human beings placed in settings that reflect the moods that raga is intended to evoke y Music therapy soundsmusic used to support encourage physical mental socialemotional wellbeing o Music used to allow clients to gain insight into own emotions o Insight contributes to a stronger sense of selfEx Depressed patient experience world as slow and darkMusic therapist improvise music together such that patient stabilize and accelerates sense of pulse while expanding range of emotions conveyed in music so patientgain better access to complex feelings underlying depressiony Music powerful tool for emotional work o Conclusion of Tia DeNora who conducted landmark study uses of music by individuals from a range of backgrounds and subcultureso British women primarily use music to regulate enhance and alter emotional statesthese women music is an effective device for conductingemotional work that is required to maintain desired states of feeling and bodily energy relaxation excitement or to diminish undesirable emotional states stress fatigue y in spite of extraordinary capacity of music to influence emotional states of people psychological studies of music have traditionally focused on perceptual and cognitive processes o 1 one reason for emphasis is that there are established and effective techniques for studying perception and cognition Researchers may also believe that perceptual and cognitive processes potentially universal whereas emotional responses to music may be more than subjective or at least largely determined by social and cultural normsNonetheless emerging body of research suggesting complex interaction among music emotionand cognition Origins of link btw music and emotion remain unclear but there now exist number of promisingy Many theorists distinguish btw basic and secondary emotions o Basic emotionsthose that have evolved to cope with fundamental issues of survival o Secondary emotions are socially constructed and culturally dependanty Disagreement as to which emotions are basic and which secondary but suggestions for basic emotions frequently include happiness sadness anger fear y Typically emotions considered basic if they fulfill a set of criteria o For example they have distinct functions that contribute to survivalIf found in all human culturesif have distinct emotional facial expressionsSound Example 61 The basongye people of Congo do not have word for music per se instead associate concepts like noise and music w states of mind through statements such as When you are content you sing when you are angry you make noise A song is tranquil a noise is not When one shouts he is not thinking when one sings he is thinking sound example is music from Luba of the Congo It is being played upon return from the chiefs funeralEmotion and Cognitiony Consider how emotions relate to cognitive processes such as reasoning planning remembering y Cognition conceptualized within what is called the informationprocessing paradigm o Approach uses computer as metaphor for understanding perception thought behavior o Visual auditory other sensory stimuli conceived as input to system o Sensory input subjected to various mental processes in which critical features extracted transformed classified and interpretedo Process lead mental state or physical act described as output o Do emotions fit within framework o Are emotions part and parcel of all cognition or operate in distinct mental system that is separated from cold cognition and that underlie our emotional intelligencey 1Emotion responses depend on prior cognitive processing o Such as sadness or pleasure may be outcome of series of cognitive processes in which features are coded classified and evaluated and appraisedo According to postcognitive conception of emotion casual chain that begins with an event leading to interpretation of event and finally to appraisal or evaluationInterpretation of an event is cognitive act whereas appraisal or evaluation is the point at which emotion arisesy 2 emotional responses occur prior to or independently of cognitive processing o Early theorists proposed extreme form of view suggesting emotional responses correspond to activity in peripheral automatic nervous system o William James suggested feelings of emotion are no more than the feelings associated with physiological or behavioural state eg release of adrenaline bodily tremblingSeeing a snake might evoke release of adrenaline and sensation associated with physiological state corresponding feeing of fearo View been criticized on basis that automatic responses lack specificity to define emotion o Although physiological states are certainly associated with emotions specific emotions experienced may be determined by a cognitive evaluation of that physiological state y Research on implicit memory suggests preferences dont always depend on cognitive processingy Zajonc reviewed numerous experiments in which repeated exposure to stimulus patterns eg novel melodies random dot patterns significantly influenced judgements of these patterns to which they had been exposedo Full implications of this mere exposure effect are still being examined but these studies certainly do demonstrate the power of experience in shaping our preferencesEven experiences that escape conscious awareness appear to influence our preferences and desires y Neurological evidence also supports an apparent dissociation btw recognition and emotion y Peretz and Gagnon described woman w right and left temporal lesions who was unable to recognize familiar melodies ie suffered from coordination known as amusia but could nonetheless discriminate music on basis of emotion that was conveyed o Neurologists believe amygdala part of limbic system is an important brain structure associated with emotional responsesIf amygdala severed from rest of brain there is a specific inability to determine emotional significance of events a condition known as affective blindness o brain structures including cortical areas have been implicated in emotional responses o No one brain structure underlies all emotionso different emotional states appear to be associates w separate subsystems in brain y Golemans book Emotional Intelligence also implies clear distinction btw skills required to process emotions and those involved in other aspects of cognition
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