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Chapter 4

PSYC62 Drugs - Ch4

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Suzanne Erb

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Chapter 4PSYC62 two basic processes involved in communication CONDUCTIONchanges within a neuron that allow info to be transmitted from one part of the neuron to another part NEUROTRANSMISSIONchanges that take place within one neuron bc of release of chemicals from adjacent neuronsConduction APs are generated in the axon hillock for every 3 Na ions pumped out only 2 K ions are pumped in allows for a negative resting potentialresting membrane potential70mv threshold potential60mv once this is reached it triggers an AP once the cells threshold potential is reached ion channels allowing Na and K to enter and leave the cell are engaged bc these channels open and shut due to shifts in the membrane voltage potential they are called voltagesensitivevoltagegated channelsNa channels open Na influx DEPOLARIZATIONK channels openNa channels close REPOLARIZATIONK efflux HYPERPOLARIZATION K channels closelocal anestheticsdrugs that block sensation from a specific part of he body they act by blocking voltagegated Na channelsNeurotransmission there are several forms of interneuronal communication SYNAPTIC neurotransmissioncommunication bw 2 neurons in which the presynaptic neuron forms a close connectionjunction synapse w the postsynaptic neuron presynaptic neuron releases neurotransmitters into the gap RETROGRADE neurotransmissionactivity in the postsynaptic neuron occurs in response to neurotransmitters released from the presynaptic neuron which may induce release of chemicals from the postsynaptic neuronthese chemicals then diffuse back across synaptic cleft to activate receptors on presynaptic neuron which alters amount of neurotransmitters released NONSYNAPTIC DIFFUSION neurotransmissionthere are no specific synapses thru which neurons communicate w each otherhere the sending neuron releases neurotransmitters into the extracellular fluid which then diffuse and interact w receptors on neurons a considerable distance away from the sending axon Synaptic neurotransmission synaptic neurotransmission is a form of interneuronal communication this communication begins at the dendrites and the soma of a neuron that contact axon terminals of other neurons ie synapses synapsesare sites of chemical release which cause very small localized
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