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PSYC62 - Ch11 textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Suzanne Erb

PSYC62 Chapter 11 pg 278287 Psychotomimetics Psychedelics and Hallucinogensa class of drugs taken primarily bc of their ability to elicit in normal individuals such alterations as visualauditory hallucinations depersonalization perceptual disturbances and disturbances of thought processes at doses that exert minimal changes in other bodily functions ie LSD mescaline marijuanasince hallucinations are the most striking symptoms associated with such drugs this class of drugs are hallucinogens others prefer the term psychotomimetic psychosismimicking or psychotogenic psychosisgenerating bc these drugs induce actual hallucinations only at higher doses whereas w low doses some characteristics of psychosis are still evidencedthe term psychedelics for mindexpanding manifesting clarifying or revealing has also been applied to these drugsPSYCHOTOMIMETICPSYCHOTOGENICPSYCHEDELICSHALLUCINOGENSPPH substances belonging to this class of drugs are classified as Schedule I Dissociative Anesthetics Phencyclindine PCP and Ketamine anesthesia is the most predominant effect of phencyclidine or PCP chemical name phencyclohexyl piperidine and ketaminebc patients anesthetized w these drugs are awake but appear disconnected from their environment these drugs can be described as dissociative anesthetic PCPs lethal dose is 10x the anesthetic dose at appropriate doses PCP induced insensitivity to pain while increasing blood pressure and heart rateunlike other general anesthetic the organism remained awake w eyes openedPCP prompted distortions in body image feelings of depersonalization and a sense of timelessness a transient feeling of being in outer space or dead or not having any limbs in some individuals PCP mimicked symptoms very closely to those of schizophrenia PCP was discontinued for clinical use and was taken out the market but illicit drug manufacturers in the 1960s started synthesizing the drug and selling it as a substitute for LSD THC mescaline and amphetamine until the 1970s it was rarely purchased as PCP commonly referred to as angel dust PCP presents a very severe drug abuse problem and has been linked to suicides drownings selfinflicted wounds and violencePharmacodynamics and Psychological Effects of PCPbinding sites for PCP are located deep within an ion channel regulated by NMDA receptors for the excitatory amino acids glutamateaspartate by binding to this site PCP prevents Ca and Na flow thru the channel and into the neuron
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