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PSYC62H3 (280)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Synaptic Transmission, Drugs, Chemical Neuroanatomy

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Suzanne Erb

PSYC62 Chapter 5Synaptic Transmission Drugs Chemical Neuroanatomy Drugs can shift normal psychological activities carried out by the brain into abnormal ones and in some cases it can also normalize abnormal psychological activesdone by interacting with the natural neuroactive signaling molecules in various areas of the brainNEUROTRANSMITTERS AND CHEMICAL SIGNALING IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Neurotransmitterschemicals that are located in specific regions of neurons released under specific stimulationact on a specific set of receptorsinduce some type of postsynaptic action such as a change in membrane potentials or metabolic activity y Classical transmittersglutamate GLU gammaaminobutyric acid GABA acetylcholine ACh dopamine DA norepinephrine NE and serotonin 5HTy More recently characterizedanandamideAN an endogenous canabidnoid and adenosine y Neurohormone substances that are synthesized and released from neurons but act as hormones eg oxytocin and vasopressin which are synthesized in the hypothalamus and released into systemic circulation in posterior pituitary y Neuromodulatorsubstances that modify neural transmission but is not itself the means of transmission neuromodulators do not cause a change in membrane potential itself y Dales LawPrinciplea given neuron uses the same neurotransmitter at all its synapses thereforea neuron can be identified in terms of which transmitter it uses but this does not mean one neuron only uses one transmitter y Monoamines include catecholamines DA NE EPI and indolamine 5HTAcetylcholine First neurotransmitter discovered and characterized shown to be released by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve because the fluid surrounding the stimulated nerve terminals was show to slow the heart rate y Acetylcholine is involved in motor control sleep emotional and cognitive processesy Many drugs that are used to treat parkinsonism and Alzheimers diseaseact on acetylcholineHistamine H A neurotransmitter that promotes secretion in many tissues involved in regulating sleep and wakefulness hence antihistamines can produce drowsiness which is useful for sleeppromoting formulationsGlutamate The most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system glutamatergic
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