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PSYC62 - Chapter Six.docx

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Suzanne Erb

Chapter Six - Page 1 of 2 Chapter Six: Tolerance, Sensitization, Dependence, and Addiction Tolerance and Sensitization  Drug tolerance occurs when there’s a reduction in the potency or efficacy of a drug with repeated administration o Increasingly larger doses of the drug are required to induce the same behavioural effect, although in some cases, tolerance can be so dramatic that no amount of drug is capable of inducing its original effects o Tolerance due to drug exposure is different from genetic or dispositional tolerance  Although tolerance generally requires several drug exposures before it`s evidenced, there`s a special case of tolerance in which a noticeable decrease in the organism`s sensitivity to the drug occurs over a very short period of time – tachyphylaxis or acute tolerance o the same amount of drug administered on two separate occasions a couple hours apart may induce greater effects with the first dose than with the second o also evident when the behavioural/physiological effects of a given dose of a drug dissipate at a faster rate than the rate at which the drug is eliminated from the brain  Cross-tolerance refers to the phenomenon in which the development of tolerance to one type of drug results in decreased sensitivity to the effects of another type of drug o Alcohol with barbiturate  Tolerance to the effects of drugs doesn’t develop normally; some effects may show profound tolerance, whereas others may show little/no tolerance  The beneficial or recreational effects of the drugs may show considerable tolerance, but little tolerance develops to the lethal effects of these drugs  With this type of tolerance, the therapeutic index for these drugs gets smaller and smaller  With other drugs, tolerance to the desirable effects of a drug may occur while the person actually becomes more sensitive to the side effects of the drug  The ability of amphetamine to induce euphori
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