Textbook Notes (363,135)
Canada (158,215)
Psychology (9,571)
PSYC62H3 (280)
Chapter 10

chapter 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Suzanne Erb

CHAPTER 10 NOTES; DRUGS OPIODS (Narcotics) AND THEIR ANTAGONISTS Some of the oldest psychotropic drugs used by humans are morphine and codeine; their use may go back 7,000 years. Originally these drugs were used in the form of extracts from the poppy plant, which contain opium, and in purified form they are still used extensively. They belong to a class of drugs that includes the most effective pain relievers available, so they are the most commonly used analgesic treatments for moderate to severe pain. Since users often experience euphoria, drowsiness, and mental cloudingperhaps resulting in the feeling that all their problems are trivialthese drugs are also used recreationally and are highly subject to abuse The most common term for morphine and similar-acting drugs is narcotic. It has been used primarily to refer to a class of drugs that promote sleep and induce analgesia, but many laypersons often think of narcotics as any highly abusable or addicting drugs. From this perspective, drugs that bear little similarity to morphine in terms of their neurochemical actions or their psychological effects (like cocaine and marijuana) have been designated as narcotics for legal purposes. Pharmacologically, only a drug with the following qualities can be appropriately classified as a narcotic: 1) It generally has sedative-hypnotic and analgesic properties; 2) it acts stereospecifically on endorphinenkephalin receptors; and 3) its actions are antagonized by naloxone (Narcan) It is restricted to extracts of opium (opiates), opiate derivatives, and synthetic drugs with opiate properties. AKA opiods Endogenous Opioid Peptides and Their Receptors Because there are numerous substances with opioid; researchers often refer to these as endogenous opioid and peptides 3 distinct families have been identified thus far: ENKEPHALINS, ENDORPHINS, DYNORPHINS; these are often categorized in a general sense as ENDORPHINS www.notesolution.com
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