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Chapter 14

Chapter 14 - Humanistic Psychology

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 14 – Humanistic Psychology Introduction  Humanistic movement (HM) is known as the third force whereas the other two forces are behaviorism and psychoanalysis  HM believed psychoanalysis to be pessimistic and behaviorism to be too objective and lack the richness of human experience  HM is a mix of European existentialism and the optimism of American psychology  Existentialism is the doctrine that the individual is free and responsible for whate he makes of himself Existentialism Soren Kierkegaard  He was preoccupied with the nature of human choice  He believed that there are two ways of living which is ethically or aesthetically  All people are confronted in one or another with the absurd nature of human existence Friedrich Nietzsche  He observed the emergence of nihilism which is the notion that there are no absolute truths or values  He believed that nihilism marked the end of Christianity and the emergence of perspectivism, that there are a number of interpretations of reality and all of them are equally valid  His concept of will to power is that there is no objective description of reality, but all descriptions are intended to accomplish particular ends and that facts are not actual facts but interpretations Jean-Paul Sartre  He thought that psychologists looked at themselves as if they were better than everyone else  He created the slogan “existence precedes essence” which means that people are not predetermined and cannot claim that they had no choice but to become what they are  He emphasized to be honest with ourselves because self deception arises when we do not take responsibility for our choices Ludwig Binswanger  The different ways of being-in-the-world constitutes the starting place for existential psychotherapy, may it be in anxiety fear or despair  He believed that patients must make a spiritual commitment in order to make fundamental changes in themselves and that the therapist and patient must have a special connection where they looks at each other as equals and look past the scientific explanations The Emergence of Humanistic Psychology  Rollo May, Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers modified existentialism (EX) and implemented it into American HM  They believed that EX created a new emphasis on will and decision, they disagreed with the anti-scientific attitude expressed by EX and the Europeans had been to pessimistic Charlotte Malachowski Buhler  Buhler was a famous figure in HM, he believed it studied the human as a whole father than concrete psychological processes  He believed to look at each patient as unique and to look at their entire life-frame  HM has a close relationship with EX, for which intentionality is a central concept, intentionality implies that a person focuses on a subject that means something to him as well as a persons directing himself toward this subject Rollo May  Rollo researched anxiety and formed to types; normal and neurotic anxiety  He believed that love and will have been pushed aside as a result of our preoccupation with the intellect, which is because of the times we live in  He believed that we live in apathy which is the withdrawal of will and love but that in the 1960s there was a “new morality” which is that people were living for relationships and love may argued that love and will both can and should support each other, and he suggested that this could come about through care Abraham Maslow  Harlow became famous for studying the attachment of monkeys  Synergy is the degree to which the needs of the individual are consistent with demands of the culture, in high synergy cultures being selfish promotes the welfare of others and vice versa in low synergy cultures, however this idea never became too popular The Hierarchy of Needs (Theory of Motivation)  basic needs (physiologic
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