Textbook Notes (368,164)
Canada (161,688)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC85H3 (138)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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Michelle Hilscher

Chapter 3: Touchstones: From Descartes to Darwin Renaissance means rebirth- renewal of interest in classical antiquity that originated in Italy in 14 th th century and spread throughout Europe in 15 and 16 centuries Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Beliefs are result of long process of developments that lacks clear plan o Like the way cities grow Begins with clear and distinct ideas that cannot be doubted Rationalism- provided our premises are correct, our ability to use reason is sufficient to provide us with truth He could not doubt fact of his own thought, therefore must be thinker who was thinking those thoughts I am thinking, there I exist Cogito, ergo sum o Cartesian doubt Innate ideas- things people know without having to learn them Mind separate from body o Each of us is a conscious being that is capable of mental acts such as doubt and imagination Dualism- mind and body fundamentally different o Mind comes from God and immortal o Body is mechanical and operates in same way as clock or other machine Interaction between mind and body via pineal gland, a singular structure centrally located in brain Model of mind-body relation, often called interactionism One 21 century philosopher observed, Descartes view is that mind is in body as if it were a ghost in a machine Cartesian Model Mind and body separate Human body subject to same mechanical laws as any other physical body, mind operates according to own rules, which come from God We know our own mind directly, through introspection o Cannot know other peoples minds directly, since we cannot observe them o All we observe about other people is state of their bodies Introspection- act of looking inward, examination of ones mental experience o Cartesian model suggests introspection is proper psychological method The Body as a Machine Descartes himself did not believe that attempt to mimic human behaviour by means of a machine could succeed People differ from animals and machines in that they are much more adaptable to changing circumstances o Human posses minds that enables them to adjust so smoothly to changing situations Study of visual perception Study of laws of visual perception was an area of intense activity during Renaissance Issac Newton (1642-1727) Called the greatest scientific genius the English-speaking peoples have produced Principia- forms the formation for classical physics Laws of Motion First law of motion- everybody continues in state of rest, unless compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it Second law- acceleration is resultant of all external forces exerted www.notesolution.com
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