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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes from Benjafield

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G Cupchik

Chapter 1 PSYC85 History of Psychology PSYCHOLOGY AND HISTORY -we need to understand the history of psychology in order to understand psychology itself Studying the History of Psychology -historiography: studying the history of history -historiographers examine that variety of ways in which historians have written history -most influential modern history of psychology was written by EDWIN G. BORING -talked about scientific, experimental growth of psych; have to place things in their historical context to understand them Person or Zeitgeist? -have to consider the individual’s role in moving history along -also consider the cultural context where it takes place (“Zeitgeist”) -example: if Darwin hadn’t thought up the theory of evolution, would someone else have came up with it anyway? Ixion’s Wheel or Jacob’s Ladder? -historian FRANK MANUEL -progressive VS cyclical; sometimes psychology is cyclical and does not get better; sometimes it does get better; could also be both, like a spiral The New History of Psychology -LAUREL FUROMOTO & the new history of psychology; philosophers and historians of science whose work was responsible for a continuing reconsideration of the nature of psychology The New History of Science th -20 century, began to see how the research methods emphasized the complexity of the research process -THOMAS KUHN: scientific disciplines developed discontinually -revolutionary periods of knowledge appear in paradigms: set of fundamental beliefs that guide workers in a scientific discipline th -example: the revolution of the controversy around Darwin’s theory in the 19 century -KUHN argued: paradigms shape the scientist’s view of the world; paradigm clashes fundamentally different ways of interpreting data exist -N.R HANSON “bird or antelope” experiment: to show that the two contexts are analogous to two different theories; each theory has the same validity, but conflicting interpretations exist which determine which way you see the data; ie. could be a bird or an antelope, depending on if there are other birds or antelopes beside it -no theory extends across the entire range; different theories compete to explain some of the same data Feminism and the Psychology of Women -feminism helped to identify distortions and biases in psychology -came about because women’s contributions to psychology were not being acknowledged -FUROMOTO called this compensatory history: it reminds us of the contributions of women that have been neglected by previous historians; extending history to include women’s contributions is the reconstruction of women’s experiences -the describing of women’s experiences was a central strand of feminism scholarship -two traditions that feminist psychologists worked under:  emphasized the similarities between the genders & discounted the importance of difference between them; ie. Letta Hollingworth  the other emphasized the sense of connectedness women bring to human culture; ie. Evelyn Fox Keller -Keller saw that the way of thinking about science had a masculine origin -Keller & science-gender system: our conception of gender and of science mutually determine one another Psychology as a Social Construction -social co
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