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Canada (161,680)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC85H3 (138)
G Cupchik (10)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Notes from Benjafield

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC85H3
Professor
G Cupchik
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6 WILLIAM JAMES 1842-1910 -published ‘The Principles of Psychology’ The Principles of Psychology Habit -observed that humans are creatures of habit and that the formation of habits depends on plasticity -plasticity: the ability of an organism to alter its behaviour as circumstances change -one function of a habit is to make our behaviour more efficient, because once a behaviour has become habitual, we no longer need to pay as much attention to it -he regarded habit as a socially conservative force and called it ‘the great flywheel of society’ -without ingrained habits, society would be anarchic The Methods and Snares of Psychology -introspection: reporting what we discover after we look into our own minds -psychologist’s fallacy: to confuse ‘his own standpoint with that of the mental fact about which he is making his report’; no theory should stand between the psychologist and the observations they make -let the facts speak for themselves -he argued psychology was a natural science and that minds were objects in the natural world -wasnt much for experimental method, but believed in comparative methods: gathering data on other species and cultures to throw light on others -used the metaphor: ‘to convey an overall sense of complexity or potential richness without necessarily specifying precise’ relations between the phenomena under discussion -one of his metaphors was the stream of thought The Stream of Thought -‘thought’ here refers to all our experiences -five characteristic in the stream of thought, or stream of consciousness: 1) every thought tends to be a part of a personal consciousness -every thought I have is my thought, no one elses 2) within each personal consciousness thought is always changing -consciousness is never the same twice 3)within each personal consciousness thought is sensibly continuous 4) consciousness always appears to deal with objects independent of the self -‘I am the same that I am yesterday’ 5)it is interested in some parts of these objects to the exclusion of others, and welcomes or rejects- chooses from among them- all the while -many thing
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