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PSYC85H3 (138)
Chapter 4


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Gerald Cupchik

CHAPTER 4: NINETEENTH-CENTURY TRANSFORMATIONS Psychophysics: math precise relation b/w stimulus values and sensations that can be measured and tested. J.F. HERBART(1776) • Applied math to psychological events • Threshold of Consciousness: events below, were unconscious, but in right situation became conscious. • Mental life is result of actions and interaction of ideas---simple concepts or sensations (blue, sweet) • Ideas oppose each other acting like forces: inconsistent ideas reduce intensity that each one is experienced (and vice versa)—some ideas facilitate each others while others inhibit. • I is amount each idea is weakened from competition with the other idea • Greater A/(a+b) is then greater I/B • B will never be less than 0 no matter how much it is inhibited by A because must be positive quantity idea can never push another out of awareness • Consciousness- ideas that facilitate each other • Unconscious (below threshold)-ideas that inconsistent • Apperceptive mass: set of ideas that assimilate ideas consistent with it and reject ideas inconsistent with it. • The source of emotion is the striving of concepts and ideas to be expressed in consciousness • Apperception: ideas assimilated into larger set/mass of ideas, for which it can be understood. As a whole, not as parts. • Belived in truth, justice, social order, • Education psychology: instructions happen in 5 ways Preparation: apperceptive mass is engaged before new material can be assimilated Presentation: in a way that maintains student interest Association: make associations with old and new material—similar/contrast stuff Generalization: well organized associations taught systematically Application: apply in practice • Ideas can move back and forth across threshold of consciousness G.T FECHNER(1801) • Panpsychism: mind and body encompass universe—nothing mental is without physical (body), and vice versa • Psychophysical parallelism: relationship b/w conscious (mental) and events of nervous system (physical) • Change in experience depends on original magnitude of stimulus not just on change • Weber’s Law: express relation b/w a stimulus magnitude and amount that magnitude has to change so subject can perceive a just noticeable difference (JND). Delta I/I= K I= stimulus magnitude to be changed, K= constant, • Quantity objection to psychophysics: sensations don’t stand in an additive relation to each other (so saying, a sensation is 10x greater is meaningless). • Experimental Aesthetics: psychology of beauty aesthetic from abolve: traditional approach to art taken by art critics and philosophers evaluate art according to standards of what art should be aesthetic from below: understand effects art has on people—empirical—depends on observations by people • These diff views showed trend in new experimental psychology: don’t speculate, observe. HERMANN von HELMHOLTZ (Mechanistic 1821) • Math, physics, physiology as one subject • Nature described mechanistically, can be dominated, governed • Johannes Muller: his teacher, came up with Specific en
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