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David Perley

Islam: ORIGINS: - Islam emerged in the 7 century - The city of Mecca was dominated by the Quraysh tribe which was open to a wide range of religious and cultural influences. - Prophet was born in to this tribe in 570 - Once a year, during Ramadan, prophet spent days in seclusion in a cave in mount Hira, tradition reports that it was during one of those retreats that he receieved the call to prophethood by angel Gabriel - For 12 years, prophet preached Islam with little success because Meccans did not want to abandon the ways of their ancestors and they feared the implications of the new faith both for their social customs and for the religious and economic status of the Ka’ba. - In 619, the prophet was left out of support when his wife Khadija and her uncle abu talib died, after their deaths the prophet travelled from Mecca to Jerusalem in one night and the ascended to Heaven and met all the previous prophets. This is known as Miraj. The First Muslim Community: - Established in Medina in 622 - The Quran’ss narratives and worldview are closely akin to the prophetic view of history laid out in the Hebrew Bible - Even though the prophet accepted Jewish practices and regarded jews as natural allies, the jews did not see him as a prophet and did not see the quran as a sacred scripture - Within two years that prophet entered Medina, Islam began to distinguish itself from Jews, and Ramadan replaced the Yom Kippur and direction of prayer changed from Jerusalem to Ka’ba. The Conversion of Mecca: - the batter of Badr remains one of the most memorable events in Muslim history. A war between troops from Mecca and Medina. The soliders from Medina were outnumbered and poorly equipped however still won the battle because they had God’s support and Islam as a faith - the following year was another fight called the battle of uhud and this time the meccans won and the jews were expelled from Medina because they were believed to have formed alliances with the meccans. - A third battle, battle of the trench, occurred because Meccans tried to attach the city of Medina itself, two yeaers later they seeked truce - Two years later, the Quraysh (meccans) broke the truce and the Prophet set out to go to mecca with a large army however when they got there, the Meccans surrendered to Islam - Two years later Prophet died Sunni/Shia drift originated: - After the death of the prophet, the majority of Muslims – The Sunni, meaning those who follow the sunnahof the prophet- believed that he had not even designated a successor or specified how one should be chosen - But a minority community known as shia, believed that the prophet had appointed his son-in-law Ali to succeed him - As a successor of the prophet, the caliph was a religious leader, also known as the imam of the community - There were four caliphs who ruled after the prophet by a heredity dynasty known as the ummayyads. And then after by the abbasid dynasty who defeated the ummayyads CRYSTILLIZATION Prophets and Messengers - Islamic tradition maintains that from the time of Adam to the time of the prophet, God sent 124,000 prophets in to the world to remind people of every community of their obligations to the one and only sovereign lord and warn them - In islam, a prophet is one who converys a message from God to a specific people at a specific time. A messenger is also a prophet sent by God to a specific community but the message he delivers is universally binding sacred law. The Quran - The quran was sent down to the prophet over a period of 23 years. According to Islamic tradition, the angel Gabriel appeared to him, often in human guise, transmitting the verses and chapters that came to constitute the Quran - The process of producing an official text of the Quran was completed under the third Caliph qithin 20 years after the prophet’s death - Like the Quran and the Hadith, the earliest commentaries were transmitted th orally, but by the 10 century, Quranic interpretations had developed in to a science - Islamic theology holds that God’s essence is unknowable, inconceievable, and above all categories of time, space, form, and number. Materiality and temporality cannot be attributed to God, nor masculinity or feminity however the Quran uses masculine adjectives, verbs etc while making reference to God - The Quran makes an important distinction between Islam and faith. Outwardly, Islam is a religious, social, and legal institution, whose members constitute the worldwide Muslim ummah or community. Faith is an inner conviction whose sincerity God alone can judge a commitment to a way of life in the worship of God and in moral relations with other persons. - The sources of Islamic law: the Quran and The Sunnah - Accounts that reports the prophet’s hadiths (sayings) must go back to the eyewitness of the event. The hadith literature is often called ‘tradition’ in English, in a quite specific sense. Islamic tradition is the body of sayings traced to the Prophet Muhammad through chains of oral transmission. Hadith is the most important component of sunnah because it is the most direct expression of the Prop
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