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RLGA02-book notes-C;(Sunni,Shia, Quran).docx

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David Perley

LEC09 - RLGA02 20/3/2012 Essay Revisions: (9:19) - can revise papers w/out feedback Assessment 1) bibliography - sources - what kind 2) documentation - what kind did you use - footnotes, endnotes, in-text citation - asked for page numbers 3) overall structure of paper - how is it setup in introduction >- intro = roadmap - heads up to reader where it is going, what is going to happen in paper 4) Conclusion - to wrap things up - stimes quick summary of what came b4 - did you not repeat exactly what was said in intro. - any sort of reflection on topic 5) Neutral description - bare description of ritual,artifact w/out technical terminology - 6) Desription/Explanation - understand distinction - shifting b/ween these ("so what" is what you are doing in explanatory section) >- explanation - evidence of analysis? ==================================================================== THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM (Potential "6th" Pillar) Jihad = struggle (lit. meaning) external sense - ideas about defending the faith, other Muslims >- missionary comp. of Islam is to spread truth (=struggle, could be phys.) (ie. struggling physically to propagate the message of Islam) >- struggle more explicit, phys struggle (ie. via war and conflict, one is facing the unbelievers, rejectors of tradition; fighting for the sake of God) - another form of interpretation >- facing unbelievers, rejectors of tradition.. internal sense - inner struggle (Sufism) - struggle of each individual to live up to expectations and commandmts of God - more like spiritual struggle - struggle = temptation, natural inclinations towards sin, bad desires (struggle towards avoiding sin, natural inclinations towards doing bad things) - Sufism - inner struggle to come to realization of relationship w/ Divine "Struggle" and Athletes: Analogy - word "struggle" analogous to athlete today - discipline & obstacles have to overcome wrt training (An. to internal sense) - An. obstacles - disbelievers, inner temptations - mastery req. Sufism - spiritual ascetics - minimize their lives so they focus on meditating to Divine ascetic /əˈset.ɪk/ /-ˈset-/ adjective avoiding physical pleasures and living a simple life, often for religious reasons They live a very ascetic life. - some Muslims take "struggle" to be as external sense to the extreme - ie. phys. fighting against the disbelievers for example Islam - tradition born in contestation *- from historical perspective, Islam born in contestation (ex) parts of Qur'an argumentative; - fighting its status of pos. wrt other relig's (esp. J,C, polytheism) >- tradition argues for its uniqueness, while still wanting to maintain continuity w/ early prophetic traditions (ex) continuity - relating to the past Prophets that came to the Jews, Christians >- contestation: struggle to discuss what is the religion - various perspectives on how to practice Islam - ex. certain Muslims are talking certain practices to be absolutely universal => "this view applies, none other" => subjecting others towards this, and finding ways to do so >- contestation = struggle to discuss what simply relig. is Radicalist - doesn't imply the individual has violent means, but merely a radical view - multiple ways of being radical, and out of this group, some resort to hyperextreme ways - ex. Qadianis; believing that Ghulam Ahmed is a Prophet =============================================== THE QUR'AN Quran - comprised of oral component and written text - oral component from its recitation power - written in Arabic Arabic - sacred, divine lang - tradition believes that revelation is transmitted in this lang. - not merely a divine lang, but absolute importance in Islam (ex) to understand the Qur'an and hadith which tell us how to live our lives, need to learn the Arabic lang "Allah" - arabic word meaning "God" - arises a Semi-Polemical issue merely from its use => when ppl mention in this context, it is as if they are saying this is one god, but there are other gods, and they can arguably more important (ex) Muslims have god called "Allah", and this is some other god, while ours is some real god (this is what they think is true) - Muslim's view - this God is the same God of the Jews, and the Christians => tradition continuing itself from relationship with God and humans that started from Judiasm Polemics - def. your relig. at the expense of others - more offensive approach - to refute other traditions (ex) Pointing out the many errors in the Bible >- inference = "my tradition is correct" Apologetics - more defensive pos. - defending the ideas of concepts with faith (ex) Defending against idea that Islam subjugates women Tradition - both past and new things are present in it => Islam looks back at J,C, and makes continuity and connexions w/ them, but also says that there are diff's and says this is a unique tradition => traditions also have connexions w/ historical past of some other tradition Every Religion has a mother [?] - tracing back faith to some historical context Theological Explanation - religion originated from God Islam - sees itself connected to early stages of relevation, but states earlier ones to be incomplete - thus, Islam comes as completion (ex) Prophet Muhammad being seal of Prophethood - the completenes - Quran is the completion of scripture - Prophet is competion of notion of prophetic traditions (sayings of Prophets) => perfection => perfect revelation to date => earlier revelations corrupted over time => need another one to supersede (=Islam) Quran- Important Aspects - Quran references other traditions and brings them into its own conversation --> METATEXTUAL BOOK - [D] - Metatextuality is a form of intertextual discourse in which one text makes critical commentary on another text. -------------------- - self-referential => Quran refers to itself, inside of itself => w/in the scripture, the scripture refers to itself - qualifies itself as the most perfect book, and compares itself as scripture/relevation to others of prev. tradition (ex) comparing its stance versus bible, torah --> ARGUMENTATIVE - embedded in context of other traditions => so many chapters are taking other faith perspectives into acc't, and explaining why current tradition (ie. Islam) is perfect - document refers to itself, argues for its own validity within itself. => argues why it and the religion is the most accurate, most perfect and the others are not --> EXHORTATIVE - pushing ppl to reconsider their ways and change (ex) consider change b/c of coming day of resurrection, hold firm to the afterlife, which one is destined to either paradise or hell *- sense of urgency (similar to earlier Christian concept of repent now) Depending on how you look at the Qur'an, you see different things => dep. on "magnification", see diff. things (ex1) On the surface level, see stories and ideas => reading directly the Arabic, or in another lang. (ex) Rhyming structures => looking more at the linguistic structure, how the verses are structured together to output this auditory phenomena (=rhyming) - chronologically earlier chapters show particular type of rhyming structure - later chapters have diff. kinds of structural features ->> Sound of the document - many Muslims learn prayer thro memorization, but many not familiar with Arabic lang - to the extent that they can comprehend all the words that they hear => don't get to it at an expert's lvl of understanding - however, followers see it important that people hear it starting from the early stages of life => apparently, it seems as if the sound of doc. is important than the meaning and content => sound of it is important; important to hear it from hearing it through early stages of one's life Historical Perspective - txt occurs in context that includes J,C documents - in stories of early traditions, emphasize that before Islam, Arab Peninsula was polytheistic - Muhammad coming back to bring monotheism - Jews and Christian; them there as well - Muhamamd not aware of Jews and Christians, but aware of their documents => suspect that Muhamamd knows Christian, rabbinical works, due to his familiarity with the faith => not an expert on the those prev traditions, but likely had access to experts Muhammad - his life time is in 7th century CE - by 9-10th century, start getting clear idea of doctrines, and text is finalized - tradition starts spreading far outside Arab. Peninsula almost immediately - so text in some form, spreads w/in empire --> Theory of Heavenly Tablet - not only does God convey the message to Muhammad from Gabriel, but there exists also heavenly copy of this communication on Earth, and that is the Quran => oral version ≡ written version => way to secure authority for the Earthly version => if Earthly version has divine version that is sanctioned by god, arguing person can only agree or disagree with you on the legitimacy of document Muhammad - as tradition dvps, the notion arises that he is illiterate => he himself did not read or write => idea of oral reception; only got it via verbal communication from the Angel => received it, and preached it; did not copy things down => tradition began as an oral experience Compilation - around 30 yrs (~66CE) after Prophet's death, the 3rd Caliph (Uthman) codifies and publishes the Quran (now have document in written form) => going from oral version to now the reduced form, aka "Uthmanic Codex" => before this time, doc. existed as oral tradition that was passed on => Quran present today is form that was compiled during the time of Uthman Quran: Structure and form - general format: going from the longest chapters to shortest more or less, with exception of the first chapter Polemics - Contestation - tradit
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