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WR - Definitions.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Perley

CHRISTIANITY Apostle’s Creed A prayer or a brief statement of Christian doctrinal belief dating from about the third century. Ascribed to the apostles or first generation followers of Jesus. It is now often recited in unison by congregation in services of worship. Atonement Christ’s restoration of humanity to a right relationship with God, variously interpreted as divine victory over demonic power, satisfaction of divine justice, or demonstration of a moral example. According to Christians, the forgiving and pardoning of sin through the death of Jesus by his crucifixion and his resurrection. Passion The suffering and crucifixion of Jesus on the cross. His crucifixion occurs on Good Friday, the Friday of Holy week, the last week of lent. The remembering of the passion takes place from noon until three in the afternoon on Good Friday, which is the same time of the crucifixion according to the gospels (other than Mark). It symbolizes and honours Jesus’ sacrifice for humanity and therefore represents the doctrine of Atonement; Jesus’ reconciliation of humanity’s relationship with God through his death and humanity’s salvation from their sins. Sacrament Ritual actions performed by Christians as an oath of alliance to their religion. In the thirteenth century a list of seven sacraments emerged that has remained standard for the Catholic tradition: baptism, confirmation, the Eucharist, penance, anointing the seriously sick, ordination, and marriage. According to Christians, it is an “outward and visible sign of an inward spiritual grace.” Trinity The idea of God having three forms, as father, son and the Holy Spirit. The father being God in the heaven, the son being Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit being a form of God that descended upon Earth symbolized by a dove. The Holy Spirit is said to be what informed/impregnated virgin Mary with the child. JUDAISM Exile In 586 BCE, the Babylonians invaded the Kingdom of Judah (the “southern kingdom”) centered on Jerusalem and exiled its inhabitants. This was a traumatic event in Jewish history, as they destroyed the political independence of the kingdom, along with its monarchy and the First Temple of Jerusalem. The Babylonian exile lasted for about 50 years (586 – 539 BCE). They were hoping that God would send down a Messiah to help them. Cyrus the Great conquered the Babylonian kingdom and allowed all the Jews to come back and another temple was built. King Cyrus was considered as the Messiah by many. The emerging of Synagogues can be traced back to the exile because after the temple was rebuilt
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