Islam: means the peace that comes when one"s life is surrendered to god, and people that adhere to islam are called muslims. Islam begins not with muhammad but with god, similar to christianity but it differs only in using the word allah: muslims believe to only have one god, like christianity. Its uncompromising monotheism threatened polytheistic beliefs and the considerable revenue that was coming to mecca from pilgrimages to its. Its moral teachings demanded an end to the promiscuity that citizens clung to. Its social content challenged an unjust order because he was insisting that in the sight of his lord, all people were equal. Koran: islam"s spiritual text; it means recitation (most recited book in the world): god"s standing miracle: only major miracle god worked through him was writing the koran. The basic theological concepts of islam are virtually identical with those of.