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Sheldon Ungar

CHAPTER 5 – SOCIAL INTERACTION FEMINIST THEORY, EMOTIONS AND THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF SOCIAL INTERACTION - In a conversation between 2 people o Women are more likely to laugh in a o Men engage in long monologues and interrupt when others are talking o Men are less likely to ask for directions o Male female conflict is a result of these differences - Social interaction o Involves people communicating face to face or via computer and acting and reacting in relation to other people o Structured around norms roles and statuses - Status o Refers to a recognized social position an individual can occupy o People with higher status get more laughs and people in lower status laugh more  Class clowns are always boys o Laughter is not a spontaneous thing, it’s a signal of who has a higher status o Social structure influences on who laughs more - Three building blocks of social interaction o Social structures o Roles  Set of expected behaviors o Norms  Generally expected way of doing things - EMOTION MANAGEMENT o Everyone does in their everyday life o External disturbance causes a reaction that people presumably experience involuntarily  We cannot control our bodies natural response like colds o When people manage their emotions they follow cultural scripts: culturally transmitted knowledge o Emotion management  Involves people obeying “feeling rules: and responding to appropriately to the situations which they find themselves in  Hoschild coined the term  People have conventional expectations on what the should feel, for how long and with whom they share the feelings with - EMOTION LABOUR o Is the emotion that many people do as part of their job and for which they are paid o Many people do as a part of their job and for which they are paid  Teachers do emotion labour (with the bad kid in the class)  Deal with others behaviors o Half the jobs of women and 1/5 of the jobs of men have to do with emotion labour o Market grows for emotion labour because of the shoft from production to services - EMOTIONS IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE o Social histories of emotion  Greif  The crude death rate determines our experience of grief.  Greif resoinse was lower because of high death rates, so purposely became less emotionally attatched to children  As infant mortality decreased, emotional investment in children increased  Anger  Industrialization turned the family into a emotional haven and the world is heartless  Anger control for women important for peacdeful family  Disgust  Manners in middle ages are disgusting by our standars o Ie. Spitting in public  Manners changed with emergence of the modern political state after 1700 o Emotions are important part of social interactions, they are not universal nor constant o How is social interaction maintained? CONFLICT THEORIS OF SOCIAL INTERACTION - COMPETING FOR ATTENTION o We do it in our everyday lives by conversing. o Conversations usually are about competition and talking to someone about themselves and if the onus shifts to the other they try to bring it back. o Conflict theory o Competitive interaction involves people seeking to gain the most socially emotionally economically while paying the least. - VARIANTS OF THE CONFLICT THEORY OF INTERACTION o Exchange theory  Social interaction involves trade in attention and other valued resources is the central insight of exchange theory  All social relationships involve give or take  Its like a fight going back and forth o Rational choice theory  Focuses ON THE WAY INTERACTING PEOPLE weigh benefits and costs of interactions.  Interacting people always try to maximize benefits and minimize costs  Kinda like high profits  Everyone wants to gain the most socially emotionally and economically while paying the least  Payoffs- interactions only occur if this is a result and this makes social order possible  However if there is unequal payoff there is conflict o Power of social interaction  When people interact their statuses are arranged in a hierarchy  Power is the capacity to carry out ones own will despite resistance  In face to face communication the degree of inequality strongly affects the character of social interaction between the interacting parties  Domination (one extreme)  Represents one extreme type of interaction  Power concentrated with people who have high status  People of low status enjoy no power  Lower status people live in a fear in this type of interaction  Threat and coercion  Less efficient in work  Cooperation (one extreme)  Power is equally distributed between people of different status.  Dominant component of this interaction is trust  Ex. Families and marriages are happier when there is trust  Competition (other extreme)  Power is unequally distributed but the degree of inequality is less than in systems of domination  Envy important emotion in this interaction  Subordinates gain presige or money and this is a stronger motivator than the threat of coercion  If boss treats them well and gets more money they will work more efficiently than slaves SYMBOLIC INTERACTION - Social life is greater than what conflict theorists suggests. - Selfishness and conflict are not the only basis of social interaction - People behave fairly according to norms and norms tell people to do good even if it costs a lot - How do people learn norms (also beleifs and status) o Putting yourself in the shoes of others o We adjust our behavior to fit other peoples expectations o Learn norms and shit actively not passively - Goffmans dramaturgical analysis o Views of social interaction as a sort of play in which people represent themselves so that they appear in the best light possible o All the worlds a stage and all the men and women merely players o People constantly engage in roleplaying o Distinguish between public roles and our true selves o There is no single self o Just the ensemble of roles we play in various social contexts o If a role is stressful one may engage in Role distancing  Involves giving the impression that we are just going through the motions but actuall lack serious commitment to a role  Like when you think a role is embarrassing you try to prove that’s not your true self o Engage in impression management  Want to be seen in the best light - Enthnomethodology o Stability of social life depens on our adherence to norms roles and statuses o If that adherence is broken down social life would become chaotic o Ex. When walking down a busy street and someone comes in your way you move to the right and they do aswell to no collide o Ex. We stare at people for a couple of seconds and look away for respect, if you stare longer than the norm it would be seen as rude o Ethnomethodology Is the study of how people make sense of what others do and say be adhering to preexisting norms o Interactions cannot take place without these norms o People get upset and end an interaction when someone violates the assumptions underlying the stabiltu and meaning of life - Verbal and non verbal communication o Social context of language  People translate better than computers because they are aware of the context that its being said in.  Non verbal cues help translators by learning nuances of meaning in different cultural and social context o Facial expressions gestures and body language  Social interaction involve a mix of verbal and non verbal messages  Six facial expressions of emotion are similar across cultures  Happy sad anger disgust fear and surprise  Facial expressions aren’t necessarily the readout of emotions  Smile for pleasure, smile to conceal anxiety  No gestures and postures mean the same thing in all societies  Point by extending arm and finger and you can point by using eyebrows and chin  In all societies people communicate by manipulating the space that separates them from others  0.5 epople for intimate  0.5-1.5 metres friends  1.5-3.5 metres for unknown people  no physical contact o status cues  non verbal communication  visual indicators of a persons social position  when people come into contact they try to acquire information that will help make interaction easier by status cues  status cues can degrenerate into sterytupes  underlying cultural assumptions uncocnsxous understandings and non verbal cues that make interaction possible o CHAPTER 18 – THE MASS MEDIA THE SGNIGICANCE OF THE MASS MEDIA - Illusion becomes reality o Mass media blurs the distinction between reality and fantasy o american psycho is really about how people become victims of the mass media and consumerism o in american psycho killer and killed are both victims of consumerism and mass media o much of reality is generated o fantasy realities created by the mass media are the only realities we know o marshall mcluhan coined term global village o media are extensions of the human body and mind o human body and mind are extensions of the mass media - What are the mass media o mass media refers to print television radio and other communication technologies to refer to the transmission of information from one person to another o mass - media reach many people o media - signifies that communication does not take place directly through face to face interaction o technology mediates in transmitting messages from senders to receivesrs tw o few senders many receivers o few people want to be cultural misfits o you either tune in or tune out  Hard to tune out because it’s the center of our social interactions o We filter out what we want to see and hear if it contradicts with our beliefs - The rise of the mass media th o Print media a mass phenomena in the 19 century o Newspaper was dominant mass medium at that time o Long distance communication was costly o Samuel moorse first guy to send telegraphic signal o Most electronic media are creatures of the 20 century o First commercial was 1920s - Causes of Media growth - Three main factors – religious, political and economic o Protestant reformation th  16 century Catholics relied on priests to tell them what was in the bible.  Martain luther protested practices of the church, wanted more of a connection with the bible, created protentism  Bible was the first mass media product of the west o Democratic movements  Political democracy promoted growth  France wanted to become literate and gain access to education  Mass media mold our outlook on politics  First televised presidential debate 1960  Negative advertising against other parties  Mass media over simplified politics o Capitalist industrialization  Modern industries required literate and numerate workers  Rapid means of communication to do business efficiently THEORIES OF MEDIA EFFECTS - FUNCTIONALISIM o Societies develop and become larger and more complex o Face to face interaction is less viable as a means of communication o Daily ritual of reading the newspaper united the world, the daily ritual of praying everyday united the christens o Coordinating the industrialized and post industrialized societies  Mass media important agents of socialization  Families importance is decreasing o Social control  Mass media helps ensure conformity  Mass media tells what kinds of people deserve punishment and what kinds of people need to be rewarded  A scandal is a sort of service to the community o Provide entertainment  Mass media productions give us a pleasure, realization and momentary escape  Some products of mass media require little effort on the part of the audience and relieve stress  They do it in a way that won’t threaten social order. - CONFLICT THEORY o Functionalists pay insufficient attention to social inequality fostered by the mass media o Two ways dominant classes and political groups benefit disproportionately from the mass media  Mass media broadcast values believes and ideas that create widespread acceptance of the basic structure of society  Ownership of the mass media is highly concentrated in the hands of a small number of people and is highly profitable from them o Media ownership  Canadian mass media are owned by only a few companies  90% of it is privately owned  Concentration of privately owned media has increased  Not only the degree of media concentration has changed but the form of media concentration shifted too  Small number of firms tried to control as much production in particular fields  Vertical integration became more widespread  Media firms sought to control prod. And dist. In many fields, and became media conglomerates o Media bias  Conflict theorists think that concentration of mass media is depriving public of independent sources of info limit diversity and encourage to accept society as it is  Squeeze alternative points of view with concentration  Biasing techniques that support interests of corporates and political groups  Advertising o Most revenue comes from this o Corporations seek to influence news so it reflects on them o Advertisers try to influence news reports  Sourcing o News agencies rely for or pfpr,atopm pm [ressre;eases news confeerences interviews organized by large coorportaions and gov.  Flak o Gov. and big corporations attack journalists who depart from official and corporate points of view  Mass media support core societal values  Mass media are virtually unanimous o Support democracy and capitalism  Endorse consumerism as a way of life  Culture consumerism is the tendency to define ourselves in terms of the goods and services we purchase - INTERPRETIVE APPROACHES o Mass media bridges social differences and reinforce society’s core values. o Functionalist – everyone’s interests o Conflict – the rich and powerful interests o People do not change their attitudes and behaviors because the media tells them to do so. o Link between media and actual behavior is indirect o Two step flow communication  Limits media effects
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