Textbook Notes (368,558)
Canada (161,962)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA01H3 (480)
Chapter

Sociology text notes pt 2.docx

13 Pages
91 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOCA01H3
Professor
Sheldon Ungar
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 5 – SOCIAL INTERACTION FEMINIST THEORY, EMOTIONS AND THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF SOCIAL INTERACTION - In a conversation between 2 people o Women are more likely to laugh in a o Men engage in long monologues and interrupt when others are talking o Men are less likely to ask for directions o Male female conflict is a result of these differences - Social interaction o Involves people communicating face to face or via computer and acting and reacting in relation to other people o Structured around norms roles and statuses - Status o Refers to a recognized social position an individual can occupy o People with higher status get more laughs and people in lower status laugh more  Class clowns are always boys o Laughter is not a spontaneous thing, it’s a signal of who has a higher status o Social structure influences on who laughs more - Three building blocks of social interaction o Social structures o Roles  Set of expected behaviors o Norms  Generally expected way of doing things - EMOTION MANAGEMENT o Everyone does in their everyday life o External disturbance causes a reaction that people presumably experience involuntarily  We cannot control our bodies natural response like colds o When people manage their emotions they follow cultural scripts: culturally transmitted knowledge o Emotion management  Involves people obeying “feeling rules: and responding to appropriately to the situations which they find themselves in  Hoschild coined the term  People have conventional expectations on what the should feel, for how long and with whom they share the feelings with - EMOTION LABOUR o Is the emotion that many people do as part of their job and for which they are paid o Many people do as a part of their job and for which they are paid  Teachers do emotion labour (with the bad kid in the class)  Deal with others behaviors o Half the jobs of women and 1/5 of the jobs of men have to do with emotion labour o Market grows for emotion labour because of the shoft from production to services - EMOTIONS IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE o Social histories of emotion  Greif  The crude death rate determines our experience of grief.  Greif resoinse was lower because of high death rates, so purposely became less emotionally attatched to children  As infant mortality decreased, emotional investment in children increased  Anger  Industrialization turned the family into a emotional haven and the world is heartless  Anger control for women important for peacdeful family  Disgust  Manners in middle ages are disgusting by our standars o Ie. Spitting in public  Manners changed with emergence of the modern political state after 1700 o Emotions are important part of social interactions, they are not universal nor constant o How is social interaction maintained? CONFLICT THEORIS OF SOCIAL INTERACTION - COMPETING FOR ATTENTION o We do it in our everyday lives by conversing. o Conversations usually are about competition and talking to someone about themselves and if the onus shifts to the other they try to bring it back. o Conflict theory o Competitive interaction involves people seeking to gain the most socially emotionally economically while paying the least. - VARIANTS OF THE CONFLICT THEORY OF INTERACTION o Exchange theory  Social interaction involves trade in attention and other valued resources is the central insight of exchange theory  All social relationships involve give or take  Its like a fight going back and forth o Rational choice theory  Focuses ON THE WAY INTERACTING PEOPLE weigh benefits and costs of interactions.  Interacting people always try to maximize benefits and minimize costs  Kinda like high profits  Everyone wants to gain the most socially emotionally and economically while paying the least  Payoffs- interactions only occur if this is a result and this makes social order possible  However if there is unequal payoff there is conflict o Power of social interaction  When people interact their statuses are arranged in a hierarchy  Power is the capacity to carry out ones own will despite resistance  In face to face communication the degree of inequality strongly affects the character of social interaction between the interacting parties  Domination (one extreme)  Represents one extreme type of interaction  Power concentrated with people who have high status  People of low status enjoy no power  Lower status people live in a fear in this type of interaction  Threat and coercion  Less efficient in work  Cooperation (one extreme)  Power is equally distributed between people of different status.  Dominant component of this interaction is trust  Ex. Families and marriages are happier when there is trust  Competition (other extreme)  Power is unequally distributed but the degree of inequality is less than in systems of domination  Envy important emotion in this interaction  Subordinates gain presige or money and this is a stronger motivator than the threat of coercion  If boss treats them well and gets more money they will work more efficiently than slaves SYMBOLIC INTERACTION - Social life is greater than what conflict theorists suggests. - Selfishness and conflict are not the only basis of social interaction - People behave fairly according to norms and norms tell people to do good even if it costs a lot - How do people learn norms (also beleifs and status) o Putting yourself in the shoes of others o We adjust our behavior to fit other peoples expectations o Learn norms and shit actively not passively - Goffmans dramaturgical analysis o Views of social interaction as a sort of play in which people represent themselves so that they appear in the best light possible o All the worlds a stage and all the men and women merely players o People constantly engage in roleplaying o Distinguish between public roles and our true selves o There is no single self o Just the ensemble of roles we play in various social contexts o If a role is stressful one may engage in Role distancing  Involves giving the impression that we are just going through the motions but actuall lack serious commitment to a role  Like when you think a role is embarrassing you try to prove that’s not your true self o Engage in impression management  Want to be seen in the best light - Enthnomethodology o Stability of social life depens on our adherence to norms roles and statuses o If that adherence is broken down social life would become chaotic o Ex. When walking down a busy street and someone comes in your way you move to the right and they do aswell to no collide o Ex. We stare at people for a couple of seconds and look away for respect, if you stare longer than the norm it would be seen as rude o Ethnomethodology Is the study of how people make sense of what others do and say be adhering to preexisting norms o Interactions cannot take place without these norms o People get upset and end an interaction when someone violates the assumptions underlying the stabiltu and meaning of life - Verbal and non verbal communication o Social context of language  People translate better than computers because they are aware of the context that its being said in.  Non verbal cues help translators by learning nuances of meaning in different cultural and social context o Facial expressions gestures and body language  Social interaction involve a mix of verbal and non verbal messages  Six facial expressions of emotion are similar across cultures  Happy sad anger disgust fear and surprise  Facial expressions aren’t necessarily the readout of emotions  Smile for pleasure, smile to conceal anxiety  No gestures and postures mean the same thing in all societies  Point by extending arm and finger and you can point by using eyebrows and chin  In all societies people communicate by manipulating the space that separates them from others  0.5 epople for intimate  0.5-1.5 metres friends  1.5-3.5 metres for unknown people  no physical contact o status cues  non verbal communication  visual indicators of a persons social position  when people come into contact they try to acquire information that will help make interaction easier by status cues  status cues can degrenerate into sterytupes  underlying cultural assumptions uncocnsxous understandings and non verbal cues that make interaction possible o CHAPTER 18 – THE MASS MEDIA THE SGNIGICANCE OF THE MASS MEDIA - Illusion becomes reality o Mass media blurs the distinction between reality and fantasy o american psycho is really about how people become victims of the mass media and consumerism o in american psycho killer and killed are both victims of consumerism and mass media o much of reality is generated o fantasy realities created by the mass media are the only realities we know o marshall mcluhan coined term global village o media are extensions of the human body and mind o human body and mind are extensions of the mass media - What are the mass media o mass media refers to print television radio and other communication technologies to refer to the transmission of information from one person to another o mass - media reach many people o media - signifies that communication does not take place directly through face to face interaction o technology mediates in transmitting messages from senders to receivesrs tw o few senders many receivers o few people want to be cultural misfits o you either tune in or tune out  Hard to tune out because it’s the center of our social interactions o We filter out what we want to see and hear if it contradicts with our beliefs - The rise of the mass media th o Print media a mass phenomena in the 19 century o Newspaper was dominant mass medium at that time o Long distance communication was costly o Samuel moorse first guy to send telegraphic signal o Most electronic media are creatures of the 20 century o First commercial was 1920s - Causes of Media growth - Three main factors – religious, political and economic o Protestant reformation th  16 century Catholics relied on priests to tell them what was in the bible.  Martain luther protested practices of the church, wanted more of a connection with the bible, created protentism  Bible was the first mass media product of the west o Democratic movements  Political democracy promoted growth  France wanted to become literate and gain access to education  Mass media mold our outlook on politics  First televised presidential debate 1960  Negative advertising against other parties  Mass media over simplified politics o Capitalist industrialization  Modern industries required literate and numerate workers  Rapid means of communication to do business efficiently THEORIES OF MEDIA EFFECTS - FUNCTIONALISIM o Societies develop and become larger and more complex o Face to face interaction is less viable as a means of communication o Daily ritual of reading the newspaper united the world, the daily ritual of praying everyday united the christens o Coordinating the industrialized and post industrialized societies  Mass media important agents of socialization  Families importance is decreasing o Social control  Mass media helps ensure conformity  Mass media tells what kinds of people deserve punishment and what kinds of people need to be rewarded  A scandal is a sort of service to the community o Provide entertainment  Mass media productions give us a pleasure, realization and momentary escape  Some products of mass media require little effort on the part of the audience and relieve stress  They do it in a way that won’t threaten social order. - CONFLICT THEORY o Functionalists pay insufficient attention to social inequality fostered by the mass media o Two ways dominant classes and political groups benefit disproportionately from the mass media  Mass media broadcast values believes and ideas that create widespread acceptance of the basic structure of society  Ownership of the mass media is highly concentrated in the hands of a small number of people and is highly profitable from them o Media ownership  Canadian mass media are owned by only a few companies  90% of it is privately owned  Concentration of privately owned media has increased  Not only the degree of media concentration has changed but the form of media concentration shifted too  Small number of firms tried to control as much production in particular fields  Vertical integration became more widespread  Media firms sought to control prod. And dist. In many fields, and became media conglomerates o Media bias  Conflict theorists think that concentration of mass media is depriving public of independent sources of info limit diversity and encourage to accept society as it is  Squeeze alternative points of view with concentration  Biasing techniques that support interests of corporates and political groups  Advertising o Most revenue comes from this o Corporations seek to influence news so it reflects on them o Advertisers try to influence news reports  Sourcing o News agencies rely for or pfpr,atopm pm [ressre;eases news confeerences interviews organized by large coorportaions and gov.  Flak o Gov. and big corporations attack journalists who depart from official and corporate points of view  Mass media support core societal values  Mass media are virtually unanimous o Support democracy and capitalism  Endorse consumerism as a way of life  Culture consumerism is the tendency to define ourselves in terms of the goods and services we purchase - INTERPRETIVE APPROACHES o Mass media bridges social differences and reinforce society’s core values. o Functionalist – everyone’s interests o Conflict – the rich and powerful interests o People do not change their attitudes and behaviors because the media tells them to do so. o Link between media and actual behavior is indirect o Two step flow communication  Limits media effects
More Less

Related notes for SOCA01H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit