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Chapter 17

Chapter 17.docx

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Sheldon Ungar

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THE RIOT IN ST. LÉONARD - schools accomplish two tasks: homogenizing and sorting - they create homogeneity out of diversity by instructing all students in uniform curriculum, and they sort students into paths that terminate in different social classes - homogeneity is achieved by enforcing common standards that serve as a cultural common denominator - sorting favours students who develop the greatest facility in the common culture while confining those of lesser skills to subordinate work roles and lower ranks in the class structure MASS EDUCATION: AN OVERVIEW Rising Levels of Education - educational achievement - The learning of valuable skills and knowledge. - educational attainment - The number of years of schooling successfully completed or, for higher learning, the degrees or certificates earned. The Rise of Mass Schooling - the printing press - in 1436, Johannes Gutenburg introduced the printing press with movable type in Europe - the printing press led to a fall in book prices and an explosion of supply - Protestantism - the Protestants believed that the Bible alone, and not Church doctrine, should guide Christians - they expected Christians to have more direct contact with the word of God than was allowed by the Catholic Church - democracy - the rise of political democracy led to free education for all children - where local populations acquired the democratic means to tax themselves, tax-supported schools arose Mass Schooling and National Wealth - industrialization - a highly productive economy requires an education system large enough to create a mass labour force, and rich enough to train and employ researchers able to work at the cutting edge of modern science - education enhances the ability to generate earnings and wealth, but educational accumulation is facilitated by early accumulation of wealth THE FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION Latent Functions - schools encourage the development of a separate youth culture that can conflict with parents’ values - students rank each other based on athletic and social success - many students who are low on such peer rankings find the youth culture of school alienating - role conflict occurs when a person’s situation presents incompatible demands - one result of role conflict is alienation or disconnection from others - assortative mating - Occurs when marriage partners are selected so that spouses are similar on various criteria of social rank. Manifest Functions: The Logic of Industrialism - industrialism requires the widespread allocation of science and technology in the economy, making work more specialized and technical, and changing working conditions Cultural Homogeneity and Solidarity - Durkheim saw people as torn between egoistic needs and moral impulses, with schools enhancing the moral side of working to create cultural uniformity and social solidarity - contemporary sociologists point to a variety of manifest functions schools perform that are aimed at creating solidarity through cultural homogeneity Common School Standards - creating cultural conformity required designating certain conventions of grammar, spelling, and pronunciation as correct and imposing these conventions on teacher-candidates and certification centres - a demanding and expensive system had to be created in which a privileged few were recruited to elite institutions, socialized to the new standards, and then sent back to peripheral regions to impose the uniform standards on students National Solidarity - as public education grew, mass socialization shifted to a common set of cultural beliefs, norms, and values directed by a central state - public educat
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