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Chapter 18,8,14

SOCA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 18,8,14: Class Consciousness, Elite Theory, For Marx

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Sheldon Ungar

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Chapter 18 Mass Media
Marshall McLuhan- media are extensions of the human body and mind
Mass media- print, radio, television and other communication technologies. Mass relates to the fact
that the media reaches many people. Media signifies communication that is not face-face.
Causes of media growth
The protestant reformation
- The bible became the first mass media product in the west
- Millions of people were encouraged to read the bible Martin Luther
- Bible became the first mass media product in the West
- Printing press
- From then on the books are still being published.
Democratic movements
- Political democracy.
- People wanted to become literate, therefore government encouraged popular literacy and free
- John F. Kennedy and the first TV debate
- Politicians are now very careful with the media, use image consultants
Capitalist industrialization
- Needed rapid communication to do business efficiently
Print media dominated until the mid 20th century, then electronical media
Functions of the media, that help make social order possible.
- Coordinating the operation of industrial and post-industrial societies. Ex. Government ensures
Caadia’s hae aess to iportat issues, alues ad ulture.
- Socialization, ex. Parents restricting certain T.V Shows
- Social control, achieve conformity, broadcasting police shows
- Entertainment
The media can set boundaries for normative behaviour through exposing media with punishments and
rewards for certain people.
Conflict theory
Believe that functionalism exaggerate the degree to which mass media serve the interests of all citizens
Mass media promotes inequalities by brainwashing people into thinking that inequality is good and
equality is bad.
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Dominant classes and political groups benefit disproportionately form the mass media in two ways.
- Media broadcasts beliefs, values and ideas that allow the acceptance of inequalities and injustices.
- Ownership of media is in the hands of a small number of people and is highly profitable for them.
Biasing mechanisms
- Advertising- News channels will develop stories that reflect well on big named brands so they can
bring in advertisement revenue.
- Sourcing- most news agencies rely heavily on large orporatio’s headline news, thus it will reflect
favourably on their policies and preferences.
- Flak- Government and big corporations routinely attack journalists who depart from official and
corporate points of view.
Largest media giant based of revenue is CTV
Limitation of conflict theory, news agencies may rely heavily on government and corporate sources but
this does not stop journalistic criticism.
Core cultural values, homogeneity of media; enforcing common standards
Interpretive Approaches (Symbolic interaction)
Two- step flow of communication: Between mass media and audience members involve, 1) respected
people of high status and independent judgement evaluating media messages, and 2) other members
the community being influenced to varying degrees by these opinion leaders. Therefore, opinion
leaders filter media messages.
Cultural Studies- on the way audience filter and interpret mass media messages in the context of their
own interests, experiences, and values.
Good research techniques to interpret media is in-depth interviews and participant observation
Stuart Hall
- People are not empty vessels into which the mass media pour a dined assortment of beliefs, values
and ideas.
- People interpret the media messages in unexpected ways.
- Studied in terms of the intentions of those who produced it, along with the interpretations of those
who consume it
Feminist approach
- Women tended to be homemakers, as secretaries
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- Men tended to be professionals
- Men were on the news more often than women
- Most women reject abortion and reject hat’s on TV, but a lot were contradictory
- Most consistently cohesive views? a. pro-life women from all classes
- Access, rich countries mostly have the luxury of internet.
- - Content, media imperialism- is the domination of mass medium by a single national culture
- Advertising, internet makes ads tailored to you, manipulates you.
- Media convergence, is the blending of the telephone, the World Wide Web, television, and other
communications media as new, hybrid media forms (Cell Phone).
- Convergence of media opinions endorse capitalism, consumerism and democracy
- The Internet can make mass media more flexible
- evidence of media diffusion shows how millions of people are connected online
Social Media
- Identity, people change their identities online, act differently compared to real life, social
interactions are being less appreciated because of social media
- Social relations, soeties soial edia a irease soial iteratios eause it’s a a to eet
- Social activism, social media opens ways of engaging in social change. Ex. Support fundraising.
The global village - used to signify the fact that humans now live in a world dominated by mass media
How mass media communication is typically accomplished? a. through one-way channels
Horizontal integration is a single company controlling more and more production in a particular industry
Vertical is the practice of a single corporation controlling production and distribution of various
products across a number of fields
What do we call the practice of a single corporation owning businesses that operate in different
commercial sectors? Conglomeration (Vertical integration)
What was the dominant mass medium until the 1950s- radios
Face to face communication is becoming less feasible
George Hegel reading a newspaper unites the secular social world
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