Textbook Notes (362,882)
Canada (158,081)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA01H3 (480)
Chapter 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

Chapter 8: (pgs. 186-210) Social Stratification 1) Patterns of Social Inequality (pgs 186 - 199)  Shipwrecks and Inequality  Social Stratification: Refers to the way in which society is organized in layers or strata.  Economic Inequality in Canada  On average (2008), Canadian families earned almost $79,000/year.  Explanations of Income Inequality  Human capital: The sum of useful skills and knowledge that an individual possesses.  Social capital: The network or connections that individuals possess.  Cultural capital: The stock of knowledge, tastes, and habits that legitimate the maintenance of status and power.  Income versus Wealth Individual or Family Estimated Wealth 1. Thomas Family $23.36 B 2. Galen Weston $8.5 B 3. Irving Family $7.46 B 4. Rogers Family $6.02 B 5. James Pattison $5.53 B 6. Paul Desmarais Sr. $4.28 B 7. Bernard Sherman $3.94 B 8. Jeff Skoll $3.56 B 9. Saputo family $3.52 B 10. Fred and Ron Mannix $3.18 B  Income and Poverty  Low-income cutoff: Statistics Canada’s term for the income threshold below which a family devotes at least 20% more of its income to the necessities of food, shelter, and clothing than an average family would, likely resulting straitened circumstances Summary:  While the average income of Canadians has grown in the last half century, extensive income inequality endures.  Differences in human, social, and cultural capital contribute to existing inequalities.  Levels of poverty are better explained by structural factors than individual factors. Chapter 8: (pgs. 186-210) Social Stratification 2) Theories of Stratification (pgs 199 - 204)  Conflict Perspective  Marx  Feudalism: Was a legal arrangement in preindustrial Europe that bound peasants to the land and obliged them to give their landlords a set part of their harvest. In exchange, landlords were required to protect peasants from marauders and open their storehouses to feed the peasants if crops failed.  Class consciousness: Being aware of membership in a class.  Class: Determined by a person’s relationship to the means of production.  Bourgeoisie: Owners of the means of production, including factories, tools, and land. They do not do any physical labour. Their income derives from profits.  Proletariat: The working class. Members of the proletariat do physical labour but do not own means of production. They are thi
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