Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Sociology (1,000)
SOCA01H3 (400)
Chapter 14,16

SOCA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14,16: Autocracy, Social Inequality, Symbolic Interactionism

Course Code
Sheldon Ungar

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
Chapter 14 - Politics (p.377 379)
Politics by Other Means
Much political conflict is constrained by rules that all sides accept
Yet people sometimes reject the rules
In extreme cases, each side in a conflict denies the legitimacy of the other side and uses force to disempower
the others => RESULT IS WAR
War: is a violent armed conflict between politically distinct groups who fight to protect or increase
their control of territory
Humanity has spent much of its history preparing for war, fighting it, and recovering from it
War has become more destructive over time with “improvements” in the technology of human destruction
20th century was the deadliest -> 100 million was deaths
War is an expensive business US spends far more than other country financing it
Wars take place between countries (interstate wars) and within countries (civil or societal war)
A special type of interstate war is the colonial war, which involves a colony engaging in armed conflict
with an imperial power for the purpose of gaining independence
Today, countries infrequently go to war against each other
They often go to war with themselves as contending political groups fight for state control or seek to
break away and form independent states
Government types include democracy, autocracy (absolute rule by a single person or party), and
“intermediate” forms
Intermediate types of government include some elements of democracy (eg: election)and some elements
of autocracy (eg: no institutional checks on presidential power)
Democracy is more common than autocracy
Countries with intermediate types of government tends to be stable because it enjoys legitimacy in the eyes
of its citizens
A democratic government tends to be stable because it enjoys legitimacy in the eyes of its citizens
An autocratic government tends to be stable because it rules with an iron fist
An intermediate type of government is characterized neither by high legitimacy nor by iron rule
It is therefore most prone to collapsing into societal war, with armed political groups fighting each
other for state control
Economic development and democratization are the two main factors leading to less war
Chapter 16 Religion (p. 414 422)
Religion and Society
William James observed that the question WHY? Lies at the root of all religious belief
Religion is the common human response to the fact that we all stand at the edge of an abyss
It helps us cope with the terrifying fact that we must die
It offers us immortality, the promise of better times to come, and the security of benevolent spirits who
look over us
It provides meaning and purpose in a world that might otherwise seem cruel and senseless
The motivation for religion may be psychological
However the content and intensity of our religious beliefs, and the form and frequency of our religious
practices, are influenced by the structure of society and our place in it
Theoretical Approaches to the Sociology of Religion
Durkheim’s Functionalist Approach
Collective Effervescence => Durkheim’s idea that something excites us by making us feel part of something
larger than we are
Ex: Hockey -> Stanley Cup Playoff
Collective Conscience: comprises the common sentiments and values that people share as a result of
living together
Profane: refers to the secular everyday world
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version