Textbook Notes (363,062)
Canada (158,169)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA01H3 (480)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 continuation sociology

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

People with the same amount of human capital may receive eedifferent economic rewards because they possess different amounts of SOCIAL CAPITAL. Social capital: the networks or connections that individuals possess  Individuals are more likely to succeed if they have strong bonds of trust, cooperation, mutual respect and obligation with well positioned individuals or families  Knowing the right people/strong links helps finding opportunities and taking advantage Cultural Capital: is the stock of knowledge, tastes, and habits that legitimate the maintenance of status and powers  Comprisesn the set of social skills people have: their ability to impress others, to use tasteful language and images effectively, and thus to influence and persuade people  Cultural capital emphasizes your impression management skills and your ability to influence others  These two factors emphasize being part of the right social club Connections and culture help you find a good job and influences who gets the interview.  Natural talent and effort are important (for a few occupations)  Level of education is a critical factor in finding continuous, well paying employment  Social and cultural capital are consequential for many people in finding economic success Income vs. Wealth  Spending a million dollars = 1000 dollars a day  Spending a billion dollars? You couldn’t spend the entire sum in your lifetime  Very few families acquire the great wealth of major business enterprises  Most families own some assets that add up to greater or esser family wealth  Wealth inequality is thus increasingly rapidly in Canada (not as much as in United States) o 62 percent of increase in national wealth went to the richest 1 percent of Americans, largest wealth inequality o Annual income is not the best measure of people’s well being o Policies that seek to redistribute income from wealthy to the poor will not get to the root of economic inequality  Due to the income redistribution has little effect on the distribution of wealth Income and Poverty  Bottom of income distribution = homeless  Homelessness = manisfestation of poverty  Absolute definition of poverty: focuses on bare essentials, poort families have inadequate resources for acquiring the basic necessities of life (food, shelter and clothing) Social policy has a profound impact on the distribution of opportunities and rewards in Canada  Politics reshape the distribution of income and the system ofinequality by changing the laws governing people’s right to own property, entitling people to various welfare benefits etc…  A definition of poverty showing fewer poor Canadians implies little need for government action  For politicians and political parties supporting the poort, a efinition of poverty showing a growing proportion of poor people is beneficial to their cause  Canada does not have an official definition of poverty  It is replaced with the term low income cutoff o Statistic canada’s term for the income threshold below which a family devotes at elast 20 percent more of its income to the necessities of food shelter and clothing than an average family would, likely resulting in straitened circumstances Myths about the poor 1. People are poor because they don’t want to work a. This myth ignores the fact that many of Canada’s poor cannot work because of disability or because inadequate childcare services leaving them no alternative but to take care of their young children b. Many poor people work full time and work part time c. The # of minimum wage workers continue to increase (6%) d. Low minimum wages ensure low income and poverty 2. Most poor people are immigrants a. Individuals and family heads generally experience poverty at lower rates than native born Canadians do b. Higher poverty rates are evident among more recenet immigrants who are less well established c. Their economic standing tends to improve the longer they stay in the country 3. Most poor people are trarpped in poverty a. 92 percent of people with low income in any given year escape poverty in less than 2 years b. 20.1 percent of Canadians who experienced one or more years of low income over a five year period c. Those who experience low income for at least one year spent 2.8 years or about one half of the total period in poverty. d. Poverty is a result of unstable family finances Explaining poverty  Individual level explanations focus on the attributes of poor people, asking how they differ from people who are not poor  This type of explanation focuses on causes that lie within the person  Someone is poor because of personal characteristic (low intelligence or behaviour abnormality)  Individual attributes explain a small amount of poverty (disabilities = have a high risk of living in poverty. However not all people with a disability live in poverty, people who live in poverty are not all disabled)  Peoples attitudes also affect poverty = poor families adopt child rearing practices that encourage low self esteem, weak motivation to achieve, an inability to delay gratification, lack of self discipline, a poor work ethic and other characteristics that cause poverty to persist  However this in accurate and confuses cause and effect  FACT: many poor people work hard, strive to get ahead and teach their children to value education  Low wage jobs that exist in th
More Less

Related notes for SOCA01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.