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Chapter 4

SOCA01-Chapter 4 Notes

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Mc Kinon

Chapter 4- Socialization Social Isolation and the Crystallization of Self-Identity -socialization is the process by which people learn their culture -they do so by: 1. Entering and disengaging from a succession of roles 2. Becoming aware of themselves as they interact w/ others Rene Spitz: compared children who were being raised in an orphanage w/ children being raised in a prison nursing home -orphans had much less contact w/ people (social deprivation) -thus, they were more susceptible to infections and had a higher death rate -by the time they were 2 or 3 yrs old, children from the nursing home were walking and talking compared to the 8% of the orphans -might have impaired sexual life when mature -thus, w/o childhood socialization, most of our human potential remains undeveloped -the formation of a sense of self continues in adolescence (rapid self-development) Theories of Childhood Socialization Freud: -social interaction soon enables infants to being developing a sense of self which is a set of ideas and attitudes about who they are as independent beings -the part of the self that demands immediate gratification is the id -self-image begins to emerge once the id’s demands are denied -the child eventually develops a sense of what constitutes appropriate behaviour and moral sense of right and wrongsuperego -the child then develops a third sense of self called the ego which balances the conflicting needs of the id and superego -Freud views the emergence of the superego as a painful and frustrating process -thus in order to get on w/ our lives we need to repress memories of denying the id -repressed memories are stored in the unconscious 3 criticisms to Freud’s argument 1. The connections b/w early childhood development and adult personality are more complex than he assumed -wrote that when the ego fails to balance the needs of the id and the superego, individuals develop personality disorders 2. Many sociologists criticize Freud for gender bias in his analysis of male and female sexuality -argued that psychologically normal women are immature and dependent on men b/c they envy the male sexual organ -classified women who are independent and mature as abnormal 3. Sociologists often criticize Freud for neglecting socialization after childhood -he believed that the human personality was fixed at the age of five Cooley’s symbolic interactionism: -introduced idea of “looking-glass self” -observed that when we interact w/ others, they gesture and react to us -allow us to imagine how we appear to them and judge how others evaluate us -thus, we develop a self-concept of who we are Mead: -noted that a subjective and impulsive aspect of the self is present from birthI -argued that a repository of culturally approved standards emerges as part of the selfme -drew attention to the unique human capacity to “take the role of the other” as the source of the me -the “me” is not present at birth but emerges only gradually during social interaction -saw the self as developing in 4 stages: 1. Children learn to use language and other symbols by imitating important people in their livessignificant others 2. Children pretend to be other people (ex. Role playing) 3. By age 7, they learn to play complex games requiring that they simultaneously take the role of several people 4. Taking the role of the generalized othera person’s image of the cultural standards and how they apply to him or her Piaget: -divided the development of thinking skills during childhood into 4 stages: 1. In first 2 yrs of life, children only explore the world through their 5 senses”sensorimotor” stage of cognitive development -cannot think using symbols 2. Children begin to think symbolically b/w ages 2 and 7preoperational stage -develop language and imagination but not yet able to think abstractly 3. B/w age 7 and 11, children are able to see connections b/w causes and effects in their environmentconcrete operational stage 4. By about age 12, they develop the ability to think more abstractly and criticallyformal operational stage Kohlberg: -showed how children’s moral reasoning also passes through developmental stages 1. Preconventional stagewhat is “right” is simply what satisfies the young child 2. Conventional stageteenagers begin to think about right and wrong in terms of whether specific actions please their parents or teachers and are consistent w/ cultural norms 2. Postconventional stagedevelop the capacity to think abstractly and critically about moral principles (freedom. Justice, equality) Vygotsky: -ways of thinking are determined not so much by innate factors as they are by the nature of social institutions in which individuals grow Ex. Ancient china and Greece -processes and events viewed as whole systems in China, but discrete categories in Greece Gilligan and gender differences: -demonstrated that sociological factors help explain differences in the sense of self that boys and girls usually develop -parents and teachers tend to pass on different cultural standards to boys and girls Agents of Socialization Families: -the family is the most important agent of primary socializationthe process of mastering the basic skills required to function in society during childhood -the family is a small group w/ frequent face to face interaction, who loves their children and are highly motivated to care for them -this is ideal for teaching children everything from language to their place in this world -also exert an enduring influence over the course of our entire lives -however, the influence of family as a socialization agent has declined over the yrs Schools: -growth of public schools is increasingly responsible for secondary socializationsocialization outside the family after childhood Class, race, and conflict theory: -a hidden curriculum teaches students what will be expected of them in the larger society once they graduate -led to believe that they are evaluated solely on the basis of their performance on impersonal, standardized tests -teaches students punctuality, respect for authority, importance of competition in leading to excellent performance etc. -this was first proposed by conflict theorists The self-fulfilling prophecy: -believing t
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