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SOCA01H3 (480)

3. Data Analysis.docx

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Shelly Ungar

 Concrete experience is obtained by seeing, touching, tasting, smelling or hearing  Percepts are smallest bits of concrete experience while a collection of related percepts are called Patterns  Abstract (mental) experience is the imaginary world of the mind  Concepts are abstract (Mental) terms used to organize concrete experiences  Propositions are ideas that result from finding relationship between concepts (More educated people receive more income) That is a proposition with the two concept Education and Income  To conduct research you 1. Formulate a question 2. Review existing literature 3. Select Method 4. Collect Data 5. Analyze Data 6. Report Result This is called a Research Cycle  Sociological research is governed by ethical standards that protect subjects’ right to safety, privacy, confidentiality, and informed consent  Sociologists must convert their propositions(Idea) into hypotheses (testable Idea) by turning concepts(items) used into variables (measureable items)  In an experiment there is a dependent variable measured as the effect in a cause and effect relationship, while the independent variable is the cause.  Another way to conduct a research other than experiment is survey where sociologists ask respondents questions either face to face, telephone or pencil paper format  A way to manipulate the data (or report results) is the use of Contingency Table is a cross- classification of cases by at least two variables that allows you to see how the variables are associated  A Sample is a group of that’s being researched on to represent a whole a group. To avoid bias the best way is to do probability sampling choosing respondents at random where everyone is
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