Chapter 4

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1 Dec 2010
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SOCA01 t CHAPTER 4
Socialization is the process by which people learn their culture t including norms, value, and roes t and
become aware of themselves as they interact with others
A role is the behaviour expected of a person occupying a particular position in society
The self consists of your ideas and attitudes about who you are
The id, according to Freud, is the part of the self that demands immediate gratification
The superego, according to Freud, is a part of the self that acts as a repository of cultural standards t
the conscience
The ego, according to Freud, is a psychological mechanism that balances the conflicting needs of the
pleasure-seeking id and the restraining superego
The unconscious, according to Freud, is the part of the self that contains repressed memories we are
not normally aware of
The I, according to Mead, is the subject and impulsive aspect of the self that is present from birth
The me, according to Mead, is the object component if the self that emerges as people communicated
symbolically and learn to take the role of the other
Significant others are people who play important roles in the early socialization experiences of children
The generalized other, according to MeadU]}v[]uP}(µoµovvZ}ÁZÇoÇ
to him or her
Piaget & Kohlberg: cognitive and moral socialization
Vygotsky & Gillian: underlined the social conditions that account for variations in cognitive and moral
development
Cooley: looking-glass self
Primary socialization is the process of acquiring the basic skills needed to function in society during
childhood. Primary socialization usually takes place in a family
Secondary socialization is socialization outside the family after childhood
The hidden curriculum in school involves teaching obedience to authority and conformity to cultural
norms
A self-fulfilling prophecy is an expectation that helps bring about what it predicts
The Thomas theorem U^situations we define as real become real in their consequences_
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